




Latent Variable Research 

(Updated 5/10/16Previous updates 6/23/14, 5/17/13, 1/23/13, 12/26/12, 2/6/12, 






FOREWORDThis website concerns testing theoretical models (hypothesis testing) using latent variables and (real world) survey data (with or without interactions or It is intended primarily for PhD students and researchers who are just getting started with testing latent variable models using survey data. It contains, for example, Recent Additions and Changes (indicated by "New," "Revised" or "Updated"): o comments on specifying and estimating a manifest, observed, continuous, single indicator, etc. variable as a latent variable, o suggestions for specifying and estimating a latent variable with only 2 indicators, o comments on the use of regression in theoretical model (hypothesis) testing. o an EXCEL template to "weed" a measure so it "fits the data" (i.e., so it is internally consistent) is new, and o several papers have been added, including one titled "What is Structural Equation Analysis?" that may be useful to those who would like to quickly understand structural equation analysis. o Some of the material below is duplicated on the "Latent Variable Interactions and Quadratics" web page (click here to view that web page). Please note: If you have visited this web site before, and the latest "Updated" date (at the top of the page) seems old, you may want to click on your browser's "Refresh" or "Reload" button on the browser toolbar (above) to view the current version of this web page. 





All the material on this web site is copyrighted, but you may save it and print it out. My only request is that you please cite any material that is helpful to you. APA citations for the material below are shown with the material. Don't forget to Refresh: Many of the links on this web site are in Microsoft WORD. If you have viewed one or more of them before, the procedure to view the latest (refreshed) version of them is tedious ("Refresh" does not work for Word documents on the web). With my apologies for the tediousness, to refresh any (and all) Word documents, please click on "Tools" on the browser toolbar (above), then click on "Internet Options...." Next, in the "General" tab, find the "Temporary Internet Files" section and click on "Delete Files...." Then, click in the "Delete all offline content" box, and click "OK." After that, close this browser window, then relaunch it so the latest versions of all the WORD documents are forced to download. Your questions and comments are encouraged; just send an email to rping@wright.edu. 









Latent Variables: 





Frequently Asked Question:  
"Is
there any way to speed up the process of attaining
internal consistency for a measure (making a multiitem measure fit the data)?" (Please see the first EXCEL template below.) 



"What
is structural equation analysis?" (Please click here for a paper on this matter, then please email me with any questions or comments you may have.) 



"Why are reviewers
complaining about the use of multiple regression in my paper?" (Please click here for a paper on this subject.) 



"Is
there any way to improve Average Variance Extracted
(AVE) in a Latent Variable X?" (Please click here for a paper on this matter.) 



"How
does one specify and estimate latent
variables with only 1 or 2 indicators?" (Please click here for a paper on this matter, then please email meI have more suggestions.) 
















EXCEL Template for "weeding" measures to attain internal consistency (making a multiitem measure fit the data). 




(CLICK ON A RED DOT) (New) 


For "weeding" a multiitem measure so it "fits the data" (i.e., finding a set of items that "fits the data," so the measure is internally consistent). Note: In realworld data, there frequently are multiple subsets of a multiitem measure that will "fit the data," and this raises the issue of which of these subsets is "best" from a validity standpoint. This template helps find at least one more subset of items, usually with a maximal number of items (typically different from the one found by maximizing reliability), that will "fit the data." The template then can be used to search for additional subsets of items that will also fit the data, and thus it helps find the "best" face or content valid subset of items in a measure. More about the template. 

OnLine Monograph: 

(CLICK ON A RED DOT) 
TESTING LATENT VARIABLE MODELS WITH SURVEY DATA (2nd Edn.) The results of a large study of theoretical model (hypothesis) testing practices using survey data, with critical analyses, suggestions and examples. Potentially of interest to Ph.D. students and researchers who conduct or teach theoretical model testing using survey data. Contents include the six steps in theoretical model (hypothesis) testing using survey data; Scenario Analysis; alternatives to dropping items to attain modeltodata fit; inadmissible solutions with remedies; interactions and quadratics; and pedagogical examples (177 pp.). Of particular interest lately is how to efficiently and effectively "weed" items to attain a consistent measure (see STEP V, PROCEDURES FOR ATTAINING...). The APA citation for this online monograph is Ping, R.A. (2004). Testing latent variable models with survey data, 2nd edition. [online monograph]. http://home.att.net/~rpingjr/lv1/toc1.htm . 



Ping
(2002) TESTING LATENT VARIABLE MODELS WITH SURVEY
DATA (Edition 1) 

Selected Papers on Latent Variables: 

(CLICK ON A RED DOT)(New) 
"On the Maximum of About Six Indicators per Latent Variable with RealWorld Data." (An earlier version of Ping 2008, Am. Mktng. Assoc. (Winter) EducatorsÃ¯Â¿Â½ Conf. Proc.). The paper suggests an explanation and remedies for the puzzling result that Latent Variables in theoretical model testing articles all have a maximum of about 6 indicators. 

(New) 
"On Assuring Valid Measures for Theoretical Models Using Survey Data" (An earlier version of Ping 2004, J. of Bus. Res., revised December 2006). The paper reviews and comments on extant procedures for creating valid and reliable latent variable measures. 




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