Ethnic and Social Dialects--
The South, Including Appalachia:
A Citation List
Wright State University-Lake Campus
Allin, Richard. Southern Legislative Dictionary: Words Used by Southern Legislators. Little Rock, AR: Rose, 1983.
Axley, L. "One More Word on 'You All.'" American Speech 4(June 1929): 347-351.
Babbington, Mima. Lexical Usage in Southern Louisiana. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1961.
Babcock, Clarence Merton. A Word-List from Zora Neale Hurston. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1963.
Bassett, Marvin Winslett. Social Differences in the Grammar of Lower Alabama. 1983.
Bernstein, Cynthia, Thomas Nunnally, and Robin Sabino, eds. Language Variety in the South Revisited. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1997.
Blanton, Linda L. "Appalachian English." Toward a Social History of American English. Ed. J.L. Dillard. New York: Mouton, 1985.
Brooks, Cleanth. The Relation of the Alabama-Georgia Dialect to the Provincial Dialects of Great Britain. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State UP, 1935. Reprinted: Port Washington, NY: Kennikat, 1972.
Brooks, Mildred Jordan. Southern Stuff: Down-Home Talk and Bodacious Lore from Deep in the Heart of Dixie. New York: Avon, 1992.
Broussard, James F. Louisiana Creole Dialect. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State UP, 1942.
Brown, Calvin S. A Glossary of Faulkner's South. New Haven: Yale UP, 1976.
Burrows, Evelyn Honor. Some Correlates of Speech in Tallahassee, Florida. 1976.
Buxbaum, K. "Heard in North Carolina." American Speech 10(Apr. 1935): 156-157.
Carpenter, C. "Variations in the Southern Mountain Dialect." American Speech 8(Feb. 1933): 22-25.
Christian, Donna, Walt Wolfram, and Nanjo Dube. Variation and Change in Geographically Isolated Communities: Appalachian English and Ozark English. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1988.
Cochrane, Ruth Bradfield. Production of Selected Features of Appalachian English in a Sentence Repetition Task by Children in Columbus Public Schools. 1977.
Cunningham, Ray. Southern Talk: A Disappearing Language. Asheville, NC: Bright Mountain, 1993.
Davis, A. K., and A. A. Hill. "Dialect Notes on Records of Folk Songs from Virginia." American Speech 8(Dec. 1933): 52-56.
Davis, Lawrence M. A Study of Appalachian Speech in an Urban Setting. Final Report. Project O-E-142. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1971.
Dorrill, George T. Black and White Speech in the South: Evidence from the Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States. New York: Lang, 1986.
---. "Phonological Features in Negro and White Speech in Two South Carolina Communities." Paper Presented at the Conference on Language Variety and Its Implications for American Cultural Pluralism. University of Chicago, 1977.
Dunlap, Howard G. Social Aspects of a Verb Form: Native Atlanta Fifth-Grade Speech-The Present Tense of Be. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1977.
Dwyer, Bill. A Dictionary for Yankees and Other Uneducated People. Highlands, NC: Merry Mountaineer, 1971.
Edgerton, W. B. "Another Note on the Southern Pronunciation of 'Long I.'" American Speech 10(Oct. 1935): 190.
Evans, M. "Southern 'Long I.'" American Speech 10(Oct. 1935): 188-190.
Eliason, Norman Ellsworth. Tarheel Talk: An Historical Study of the English Language in North Carolina to 1860. 1956. New York: Octagon, 1980.
Farr, T. J. "The Language of the Tennessee Mountain Regions." American Speech 14(Apr. 1939): 89-92.
Farwell, Harold F., and J. Karl Nicholas, eds. Smoky Mountain Voices: A Lexicon of Southern Appalachian Speech Based on the Research of Horace Kephart. Lexington, KY: UP of Kentucky, 1993.
Feagin, Crawford. Variation and Change in Alabama English: A Sociolinguistic Study of the White Community. Washington, DC: Georgetown UP, 1979.
Fink, Paul M. "Smoky Mountains History as Told in Place-Names." East Tennessee Historical Society Publications 6(1934): 3-11.
Fitzhugh, J.K. "Old English Survival in Mountain Speech." English Journal 58(Nov. 1969): 1124-27.
Foley, Lawrence M. A Phonological and Lexical Study of the Speech of Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1972.
Foscue, Virginia O. A Preliminary Survey of the Vocabulary of White Alabamians. Mobile, AL: U of Alabama P, 1974.
Garber, Aubrey. Mountain-ese: Basic Grammar for Appalachia. Radford, VA: Commonwealth, 1976.
Gehrke, W. H. "The Transition from German to the English Language in North America." North Carolina Historical Review 12(June 1935): 1-19.
Graves, Richard Layton. Language Differences among Upper- and Lower-Class Negro and White Eighth Graders in East Central Alabama. 1967.
Greet, W. C. "Delmarva Speech." American Speech 8(Dec. 1933): 56-63.
Hall, Joseph Sargent. Mountain Speech in the Great Smokies. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, 1941.
--. The Phonetics of Great Smokey Mountain Speech. New York: King's Crown, 1942.
--. Sayings from Old Smoky, Some Traditional Phrases, Expressions, and Sentences Heard in the Great Smoky Mountains and Nearby Areas: An Introduction to a Southern Mountain Dialect. Asheville, NC: Cataloochee, 1972.
Harder, Kelsie B. Lord Ashley's Dictionary of Charltonese, as Compiled for the News and Courier. 1956.
Hazen, Kirk. Identity and Ethnicity in the Rural South: A Sociolinguistic View through Past and Present "Be". Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2000.
Heap, Norman A. A Burley Tobacco Word List from Lexington, Kentucky. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1966.
Hendrickson, Robert. Mountain Range: A Dictionary of Expressions from Appalachia to the Ozarks. New York: Facts on File, 1997.
Higgs, Robert J., and Ambrose N. Manning, eds. Voices from the Hills: Selected Readings of Southern Appalachia. New York: Ungar, 1975.
Hill, A. A. "A Report on Proposed Investigations of Southern Speech." Dialect Notes 6(Dec. 1934): 420-424.
Hopkins, John. The White Middle-Class Speech of Savannah, Georgia: A Phonological Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, 1975. U of South Carolina.
Houston, Susan H. "A Sociolinguistic Consideration of Children in Northern Florida." Language 45(Sep. 1969).
Howren, Robert R., Jr. The Speech of Louisville, Kentucky. Ph.D. Dissertation, 1958. Indiana U.
Ives, Sumner. The Phonology of the Uncle Remus Stories. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1954.
Jaffe, Hilda. The Speech of the Central Coast of North Carolina: The Carteret County Version of the Banks "Brogue". Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1976.
Johnson, Ellen. Lexical Change and Variation in the Southeastern United States, 1930-1990. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1996.
Kane, Elisha. "The Negro Dialects along the Savannah River." Dialect Notes 5(1925): 354-367.
Kelley, Mark S. An Acoustic Analysis of an Appalachian Dialect. 1997.
Kurath, Hans. "Progress of the Linguistic Atlas and Proposals for Continuation of the Work." Dialect Notes 6(Dec. 1934): 417-419.
Kurath, H., R.I. McDavid, Jr., and R.K. O'Cain. Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1978.
Lady Ashley Cooper's Dictionary of Charlestonese. Charleston, SC: The News and Courier, 1956.
Lamoureaux, Dominique Marie. The Struggle for Survival: The Uniqueness of the French Creoles in Louisiana. 1975.
Lissewski, Monika. Early Black English in South Carolina. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 1991.
McDavid, Raven I, Jr. Dialect Labels in the Merriam Third: Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1969.
--. "The Position of the Charleston Dialect." Publication of the American Dialect Society 23(1955): 35-49.
---. "Postvocalic /-t/ in South Carolina: A Social Analysis." American Speech 23(1948): 194-203.
McDavid, Raven I., et al The Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1980.
McDavid, Raven I., and Raymond O'Cain. "Prejudice and Pride: Linguistic Acceptability in South Carolina." Acceptability in Language. Ed. Sidney Greenbaum. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton, 1977. 103-32.
McDavid, Raven I., Raymond K. O'Cain, and George T. Dorrill. "The Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States." Special Libraries Association Geography and Map Division Bulletin 113(1978): 17-23.
McDermott, J. F. "French Surnames in the Mississippi Valley." American Speech 9(Feb. 1934): 28-30.
McMillan, James B. Annotated Bibliography of Southern American English. Coral Gables, FL: U of Miami P, 1971.
---. "Vowel Nasality as a Sandhi-Form of the Morphemes -NT and -ING in Southern American." American Speech 14(Apr. 1939): 120-123.
McWhorter, A. W. "Classical Place Names in Tennessee." Word Study 9(Nov. 1933): 7-8.
Miller, Michael I. "An Approach to the Reconstruction of Upcountry Lower Southern Creole." Journal of English Linguistics 27(Sep. 1999): 199-212.
---. "Augusta, Georgia: Regional and Social Geography." Journal of English Linguistics 27(Sep. 1999): 192-198.
---. "Contact, Borrowing, and Plurals in -en." Journal of English Linguistics 27(Sep. 1999): 212-224.
---. "The Effects of School on Mutation Plurals." Journal of English Linguistics 27(Sep. 1999): 228-236.
---. "Modeling and Crossover." Journal of English Linguistics 27(Sep. 1999): 238-256.
---. "An Unnoticed Feature in Eighteenth-Century English Grammar." Journal of English Linguistics 27(Sep. 1999): 269-283.
---. "Urban Social Geography and the Analogical Change of Measure Nouns." Journal of English Linguistics 27(Sep. 1999): 257-268.
---. "The West African Substratum in Southern American English." Journal of English Linguistics 27(Sep. 1999): 284-305.
Mitchell, Steve. How to Speak Southern. Toronto: Bantam, 1976.
--. More How to Speak Southern. Toronto: Bantam, 1980.
Montgomery, Michael B., and Guy H. Bailey, eds. Language Variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1986.
Montgomery, Michael B., and Thomas E. Nunnally, eds. From the Gulf States and Beyond: The Legacy of Lee Pederson and LAGS. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1998.
Nicholson, Charles. A Field Guide to Southern Speech: A Twelve-Gauge Lexicon for the Duck Blind, the Deer Stand, the Skeet Shoot, the Bass Boat, and the Backyard Barbecue. Little Rock, AR: August House, 1989.
O'Cain, R.K. A Social Dialect Survey of Charleston, South Carolina. Ph.D. Dissertation, 1972. U of Chicago.
Owens, B. A. "Folk Speech of the Cumberlands." American Speech 7(Dec. 1931): 89-95.
Parler, M. C. "Word-List from Wedgefield, South Carolina." Dialect Notes 6(1930): 79-85.
Patton, Douglas W.K. "Y'all in America." Southern Living 34(Mar. 1999): 210.
Pederson, Lee. An Annotated Bibliography of Southern Speech. Atlanta, GA: Southeastern Education Laboratory, 1968.
---. "Dialect Patterns in Rural North Georgia." Lexicography and Dialect Geography: Festgabe fur Hans Kurath. Eds. H. Scholler and J. Reidy. Wiesbaden, Germany: Franz Steiner, 1973. 195-205.
--. East Tennessee Folk Speech: A Synopsis. New York: Lang, 1983.
--. "The Plan for a Dialect Survey of Rural Georgia." Orbis 24(1975): 38-44.
Pederson, Lee, ed. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States. Athens, GA: U of Georgia P, 1986-1992.
Pederson, Lee, et al, eds. A Manual for Dialect Research in the Southern States. Atlanta, GA: Georgia State UP, 1972.
Pederson, Lee, Susan Leas McDaniel, and Marvin Bassett, eds. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States: A Concordance of Basic Materials. Atlanta: 1986.
Pendleton, P. E. "How the 'Wood Hicks' Speak: Some Observations Made in Upshur County, West Virginia." Dialect Notes 6(1930): 86-89.
Powers, Nick, and Wilann Powers. Speakin Suthern Like It Should Be Spoke: A Dixie Dictshunary.. Lindale, GA: Country Originals, 1975.
Ragaway, Martin A. We Don't Tawuk Funny, Yew All Lissen Funny! Los Angeles: Price, Stern, and Sloan, 1983.
Ramsay, R. L. "Inquiries" [Mark Twain Dictionary]. American Speech 11(Apr. 1936): 186.
Randolph, Vance. "A Fourth Ozark Word-List." American Speech 8(Feb. 1933): 47-53.
---. "Recent Fiction and the Ozark Dialect." American Speech 6(Aug. 1931): 425-428.
Randolph, V., and I. Spradley. "Quilt Names in the Ozarks." American Speech 8(Feb. 1933): 33-36.
Randolph, Vance, and George P. Wilson. Down in the Holler: A Gallery of Ozark Folk Speech. Norman, OK: U of Oklahoma P, 1953.
Read, William Alexander. Some Variant Pronunciations in the New South. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State UP, 1912.
--. The Southern R. Baton Rouge, LA: Independent, 1910.
Rulon, Curt M. "Geographical Delimitation of the Dialect Areas in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." Mark Twain Journal 14(1966): 9-12.
Shewmake, Edwin Francis. English Pronunciation in Virginia. Davidson, NC, 1928.
---. "Shakespeare and Southern 'You All.'" American Speech 13(Oct. 1938): 163-168.
Sizer, Miriam M. "Christian Names in the Blue Ridge of Virginia." American Speech 8(Apr. 1933): 34-37.
---. "Surnames in the Blue Ridge of Virginia." American Speech 12(Dec. 1937): 267-269.
Smith, Vicki, and Jean Hoornstra. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States: The Basic Materials: An Introduction and Guide to the Microfiche Collection. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1981.
Stanley, Oma. The Speech of East Texas. New York: Columbia UP, 1937.
---. "The Speech of East Texas." American Speech 11(Feb. 1936): 3-36.
---. "The Speech of East Texas (II)." American Speech 11(Apr. 1936): 145-166.
Stewart, William A. Language and Communication Problems in Southern Appalachia. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1967.
Tinker, Edward Larocque. Gombo, The Creole Dialect of Louisiana: With a Bibliography. Worcester, MA: The Society, 1935.
---. "Gombo, the Creole Dialect of Louisiana. Together with a Bibliography." Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 45(Apr. 1935): 101-142.
---. "Louisiana Gombo." Yale Review 21(Spring 1932): 566-579.
Tresidder, Argus. "The Speech of the Shenandoah Valley." American Speech 12(Dec. 1937): 284-288.
Tyler, T. "Harpin' Boont in Boonville." Time 7 Feb. 1969: 20-21.
Valdman, Albert. Dictionary of Louisiana Creole. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 1998.
Walton, Gerald W. Some Southern Farm Terms in Faulkner's Go Down, Moses: Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1969.
Warner, James H. "A Word List from Southeast Arkansas." American Speech 13(Feb. 1938): 3-7.
Wheatley, K. E. "Southern Standards." American Speech 9(Feb. 1934): 36-45.
Wilder, Roy. You All Spoken Here. New York: Viking, 1984.
Wilkinson, Lupton A. "Gullah versus Grammar." North American Review 236(Dec. 1933): 539-542.
Williams, Cratis D. Southern Mountain Speech. Berea, KY: Berea CP, 1992.
Williamson, Juanita V. A Phonological and Morphological Study of the Speech of the Negro of Memphis, Tennessee. Doctoral Dissertation, 1961. Michigan. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1970.
Wilson, G. P. "Some Unrecorded Southern Vowels." American Speech 9(Oct. 1934): 209-213.
Wolfram, Walt. Appalachian Speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1976.
Wolfram, Walter A., and Donna Christian. Appalachian Speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1976.
Wolfram, Walt, Kirk Hazen, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Dialect Change and Maintenance on the Outer Banks. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1999.
Wolfram, Walt, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Hoi toide on the Outer Banks: The Story of the Ocracoke Brogue. Chapel Hill, NC: U of North Carolina P, 1997.
Wood, Gordon R. "An Atlas Survey of the Interior South." Orbis 9(1960): 7-12.
--. A List of Words from Tennessee. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1958.
--. Word Distribution in the Interior South. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1961.
Word Lists from the South. Tuscaloosa, AL: American Dialect Society, 1944.
Wright, Barbara Helen White. Hypercorrections and Dialect Forms in the Compositions of Native Born College Students from Georgia. 1985.
Young, Rebecca Martin The Intonation, Articulation, and Speaking Rate of Black and White Speakers from Southern Universities. 1973.
Zallio, A.G. "The Piedmontese Dialects in the United States." American Speech 2(1927): 501-05.