Masculinity in Modern Europe
Questions for Theme 1: The Body Politic
1. The central thesis of the book is on page 5. Find it, and express in your own words.
2. According to Forth, There are 4 developments associated with modern civilization that have conflicted with ideas of "natural" masculinity. What are those four developments, and how do they undermine "natural" masculinity?
3. How are ideas of the male body important in validating masculine character? (pp. 8-9)
Braudy, chaps 1-4
1. What are two pieces of evidence Braudy uses to argue that men are not naturally aggressive?
2. Briefly, what does Braudy mean when he says "Sex is not the same as gender."
3. Braudy thinks that rituals and warfare shape masculinity primarily by establishing distinctions between manliness and ___________.
Forth, Chapter 2
1. Why was it important for gentlemen to live by a code of manners?
2. What dangers did refinement of manners and clothing pose to masculine identity?
3. Who was Captain Rigby, and why is he significant to this discussion?
4. Describe one form of masculine rebellion against gentlemanly self-restraint.
"Levˇe en Masse" and Braudy, ch. 29
1. [Levˇe en Masse] Who is being called to national service in this document?
2 [Braudy] What was the big difference between the French army after the revolution, and those who came before?
3. How did this change affect society as a whole?
Hagemann, "German Heroes"
1. What is different about the German myth of "death for the fatherland" after the year 1813?
2. What is a difference between "Citizen as national warrior" type of manliness and the
"Christian militia man" type?
3. What was the main change in the idea of heroism during the 19th century?
Oldstone-Moore, "Beards of the Romantic Imagination"
1. What is one reason romantics liked to wear beards?
2. Describe two examples of conservative romanticism in the early nineteenth century
3. What is one significant way that romanticism affected ideas of masculinity?