(from Medieval Sourcebook)

I Wednesday, March 28th

 On this Wednesday there were present the reverend fathers, lords and lawyers: Gilles,  abbot of Fécamp; Pierre, prior of Longueville; Jean Beaupère, Jacques de Touraine, Erard  Emengart, Maurice du Quesnay, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, Guillaume Le Boucher, Jean de  Nibat, Jean Le Fèvre, Jean de Châtillon, Jacques Guesdon, and Gérard Feuillet, doctors  of sacred theology; Raoul Roussel, doctor of canon and civil law; Robert Le Barbier, licentiate in canon law; William Haiton, Nicolas Couppequesne, bachelors of sacred  theology; Jean Guerin, Denis Gastinel, Jean Le Doulx, bachelors of canon and civil law;  Jean Pinchon, Jean Basset, Jean de La Fontaine, Jean Colombel, Jean Duchemin, bachelors of  canon law; André Marguerie, archdeacon of Petit-Caux; Jean Alespée, Nicolas Caval,  Geoffroy du Crotay, licentiates in civil law; Guillaume Desjardins, Jean Tiphaine, doctors, and Guillaume de La Chambre, licentiate of medicine, William Brolbster and John  Hampton, priests.

 Here follows word for word the tenor of the articles of the accusation, and of the  answers made by Jeanne, with the other answers which she made elsewhere, to which she  refers

 "In your presence, venerable father in Christ and in Our Lord, Pierre, by divine  mercy bishop of Beauvais, now Ordinary Judge and possessing territory in the city and diocese of Rouen; and of the religious  brother Jean Le Maistre, of the order of Preaching brothers, bachelor of sacred theology,  vicar in this town and diocese and in this trial especially appointed by master Jean  Graverent, distinguished doctor of sacred theology, of the same order, Inquisitor of  Heretical Error in the kingdom of France by the Holy See; before you, competent judges, to  the end that the woman commonly called Jeanne the Maid, found, taken, and detained in the  limits of your territory, venerable father, and the boundaries of your diocese of  Beauvais, surrendered, entrusted, delivered, and restored to you, her ecclesiastical and  ordinary judge by Our Lord Christian King of France and England, to be dealt with by the  law and corrected, as one vehemently suspected, denounced, and defamed by honest and sober  people; to the end that she should be denounced and declared by you her said judges as a  witch, enchantress, false prophet, a caller-up of evil spirits, as superstitious,  implicated in and given to magic arts, thinking evil in our Catholic faith, schismatic in  the article Unam Sanctam, etc., and in many other articles of our faith skeptic and  devious, sacrilegious, idolatrous, apostate of the faith, accursed and working evil,  blasphemous towards God and His saints, scandalous, seditious, perturbing and obstructing  the peace, inciting to war, cruelly thirsting for human blood, encouraging it to be shed,  having utterly and shamelessly abandoned the modesty befitting her sex, and indecently put  on the ill-fitting dress and state of men-at-arms; and for that and other things  abominable to God and man, contrary to laws both divine and natural, and to ecclesiastical  discipline, misleading princes and people; having to the scorn of God permitted and  allowed herself to be adored and venerated, giving her hands to be kissed; heretical or at  the least vehemently suspected of heresy; that according to the divine and canonical
sanctions she should be punished and corrected canonically and lawfully, as befitted  these and all other proper ends: Jean d'Estivet, canon of the churches of Bayeux and  Beauvais, Promoter or Procurator of your office, appointed therein by you and specially  deputed agent and prosecutor in the name of that office, says, proposes, and intends to  prove and duly inform your minds against the said Jeanne, accused or denounced;  nevertheless the said Promoter protests that it is not his intention to endeavor to prove  what is superfluous, but only what will and must suffice to this end, wholly or in part,  with all other protestations customary in such matters, and reservations of the right to  add, correct, alter, interpret, in law and in fact."


 "Firstly, according to divine as well as canon and civil law it is meet and proper  for you, the one as ordinary judge, the other as Inquisitor of the faith, to drive out,  destroy and utterly uproot from your diocese and from the whole kingdom of France the  heresies, sacrileges, superstitions, and other crimes declared above; to punish, correct  and restore heretics, those who propose, speak, and utter things contrary to our Catholic  faith, or act against it in any way, and all evil doers, criminals or their accomplices  who shall be apprehended in the said diocese and jurisdiction, even if part or all of  their misdeeds shall have been committed elsewhere, as other competent judges in their own  dioceses, limits, and jurisdictions are empowered and bound to do. And therein, even in  respect of a lay person of whatever estate, sex, quality, or preëminence, you must be  held, esteemed and reputed competent judges."

 To this first article Jeanne replies that she is well aware that Our Holy Father the  Pope of Rome and the bishops and other clergy exist for the protection of the Christian  faith and the punishment of those who fall from it; but for her part she will in respect of  her acts submit only to the Church in Heaven, that is to God, to the Blessed Virgin Mary  and to the Saints of Paradise. She firmly believes that she has not failed in our faith  and would not fail therein.


 "The said accused, not only in the present year, but from the time of her  childhood, not only in your diocese and jurisdiction, but also in the neighboring and  other parts of this kingdom, has performed, composed, mingled in and commanded many charms  and superstitions; she has been deified and permitted herself to be adored and venerated;  she has called up demons and evil spirits, has consulted and frequented them, has had,  made, and entered into pacts and treaties with them; she has similarly given counsel, aid  and favor to others doing the same things, and has induced them to do the same or like  things, saying, believing, maintaining, affirming, that so to do, to believe in them, to  use such charms, divinations and superstitious proceedings was neither a sin nor a forbidden thing; but she has rather assured them that it is lawful, praiseworthy and  opportune, enticing into these evil ways and errors many people of different estate and of  either sex, in whose heart she imprinted these and like things. And in the accomplishment  and perpetration of these crimes the said Jeanne has been taken and captured in the  boundaries and limits of your diocese of Beauvais."

 To this second article Jeanne answers that she denies the charms, superstitions, and  divinations; and as for the adoration, if certain people have kissed her hands or garments  it is not because of her or at her will; she kept herself from that as far as it was  within her power. The rest of the article she denies.


 "The accused is fallen into many divers errors of the worst kind, infected with  heretical evil: she has said, uttered, voiced, affirmed, published, graven on the hearts  of simple people certain false and lying propositions, infected with heresy and actually  heretical, without and contrary to our Catholic faith, against the statutes made and approved by the General Councils, as well as divine, canon and civil laws: propositions scandalous, sacrilegious,  contrary to good customs and offensive to pious ears; she has lent aid, counsel and favor  to those who have said, uttered, affirmed and promulgated these propositions."

 This third article Jeanne denies and declares that as far as in her lies she has upheld  the Church.


 "And the better and more particularly to inform you, my ford judges, of the  offenses, excesses, crimes, and misdemeanors committed by the accused, as has been  reported, in many parts of the realm, in this diocese and elsewhere, it is true that the  accused was and is a native of the village of Greux, that she has for father Jacques d'Arc  and for mother Isabelle, his wife; that she was brought up in her youth, until the age of  18 or thereabouts, in the village of Domrémy on the Meuse, in the diocese of Toul, in the  Bailly of Chaumont-en-Bassigny, in the provosty of Monteclaire and Andelot. Which Jeanne  in her youth was not taught or instructed in the belief and principles of the faith, but  was lessoned and initiated by certain old women in the use of spells, divinations, and other superstitious works or magic arts. Many inhabitants of these villages are known from  olden times to have practiced these evil arts, and from certain of them, and especially  from her godmother, Jeanne declares she has often heard talk of visions or apparitions of  fairies or fairy spirits, and from others also she has been taught and filled with these  evil and pernicious errors about the spirits, so much so that she confessed to you, in  judgment, that until this day she knew not whether these fairies were evil spirits."

 To this article Jeanne replied that she allowed the first part, namely, about her  father and mother and the place of
her birth; but as for fairies, she did not understand. As for her instruction, she  learned to believe and was well and duly taught how to behave as a good child should. For  her godmother she referred to what she had stated elsewhere.

 Asked about saying her Credo, she answers: "Ask the confessor to whom I said  it."


 "Near the village of Domrémy stands a certain large and ancient tree, commonly  called ''l'arbre charmine faée de Bourlemont," and near the tree is a fountain. It  is said that round about live evil spirits, called fairies, with whom those who practice  spells are wont to dance at night, wandering about the tree and the fountain."

 To this fifth article, touching the tree and the fountain, Jeanne refers to another  answer she has given: the rest she denies.

 On Saturday the 24th day of February, she answered that not far from Domrémy there is  a tree called the Ladies' Tree which some call the Fairies' Tree, and near it is a  fountain. She has heard that the sick drink of this fountain (she herself has drunk of it)  and seek from its waters the restoration of their health; but she does not know whether  they are cured or not.

 On Thursday, March 1st asked if St. Catherine and St. Margaret spoke to her under the  tree, she answered: "I do not know." And asked once more if the saints spoke to  her at the fountain, she answered that they did, that she heard them there; but what they  said to her then, she no longer knew. Asked, on the same day, what the saints promised  her, there or elsewhere, she replied that they made no promise to her, but by God's  permission.

 On Saturday, March 17th, asked if her godmother who saw the fairies is accounted a wise woman, she answered that she is held and accounted a  good honest woman, and not a witch or sorceress.

 The same day, asked if she had not heretofore believed the fairies to be evil spirits,  she answered that she did not know. And the same day, when asked if she knew anything of  those who consort with the fairies, she answered that she never went and never knew aught  of that, but she had heard that some went on Thursdays. She does not believe in it, and  holds it to be witchcraft.


 "The said Jeanne was wont to frequent the fountain and the tree, mostly at night,  sometimes during the day; particularly, so as to be alone, at hours when in church the  divine office was being celebrated. When dancing she would turn around the tree and the  fountain, then would hang on the boughs garlands of different herbs and flowers, made by  her own hand, dancing and singing the while, before and after, certain songs and verses  and invocations, spells and evil arts. And the next morning the chaplets of flowers would  no longer be found there."

 To this sixth article, on this 27th day of March, she answers that she refers to  another reply that she has made. The remainder of the article she denies.

 On Saturday, the 24th of February, she said that she heard how that the sick, when they  can get up, go to the tree to walk about; it is a huge tree, a beech, from which "le  beau may" comes; and it belonged, so it was said, to Pierre de Bourlemont. Sometimes  she went playing with the other girls, in summer, and made garlands for Our Lady of  Domrémy there. Often she had heard old people tell, not those of her family, that the  fairies frequented it. She has heard Jeanne, the wife of mayor Aubrey of Domrémy, her godmother, say that she had seen the fairies, but she herself  does not know if it is true. She never, as far as she knew, saw the fairies, and she does  not know if she saw any elsewhere. She has seen the maidens putting chaplets of flowers on  the boughs of the tree, and she herself has hung them with the others, sometimes carrying  them away, sometimes leaving them there. She adds that ever since she knew she must come to France she had taken little part in games or dancing, as little as possible. She does  not know whether she has danced near the tree since she had grown to understanding; and  though on occasions she may well have danced there with the children, she more often sang  than danced there. There is also a wood, called the Oak wood, which can be seen from her  father's door, not more than half a league away. She does not know, nor has she ever  heard, that the fairies repair there, but she has heard from her brothers that after she  had left the country it was said that she received her message at the Fairies' Tree. She  says she did not and she told her brother so. Further, she says that when she came to her  king, several people asked her if there was not in her part of the country a wood called  the Oak wood; for there were prophecies saying that out of the Oak wood should come a maid  who should work miracles; but she said she put no faith therein.

 . . .


 "Jeanne, when she was about [fifteen], of her own will and without the leave of  her said father and mother, went to the town of Neufchâteau in Lorraine and there for  some time served in the house of a woman, an innkeeper named La Rousse, where many young  unguarded women stayed, and the lodgers were for the most part soldiers. Thus, dwelling at  this inn, she would sometimes stay with the said women, sometimes would drive the sheep to the fields, and occasionally lead the horses to drink, or to the meadow, or pasture; and  there she learned to ride and became acquainted with the profession of arms."

 To this eighth article Jeanne answered that she referred to her other replies, and  denied the remainder.

 Now on February 22nd she confessed that out of dread of the Burgundians she left her  father's house and went to the town of Neufchâteau in Lorraine, to the house of a certain  woman named La Rousse, where she stayed about a fortnight,, undertaking the common duties  of the house; but she did not go into the fields. On Saturday the twenty-sixth of the same  month, when asked if she took the beasts to the fields, she, said she had already replied;  she also added that, since she was grown up and had reached understanding, she did not commonly look after the cattle,  but helped to take them to the meadows and to a castle called the Island, for fear of the  soldiers, but she does not remember whether or not she tended them in her youth.


 "Jeanne, when in this service, summoned a certain youth for breach of promise  before the magistrate of Toul, and in the pursuit of this case, she went frequently to  Toul, and spent almost everything she had. This young man, knowing she had lived with the  said women, refused to wed her, and died, pendente lite. For this reason, out of spite,  Jeanne left the said service."

 To this ninth article Jeanne answers that she has replied elsewhere, and that she  refers to that reply. She denies the remainder.

 Now on Monday, the 12th of March, in answer to the question who had persuaded her to  summon a man from Toul for breach of promise, she said: "I did not have him summoned,  it was he who summoned me, and I swore before the judge to tell the truth." Lastly  she swore that she had made no promise to this man. And she added that her voices assured  her she would win her case.


 "After leaving the service of La Rousse, the said Jeanne claims to have had for  five years, and still be having, visions and apparitions of St. Michael, of St. Catherine,  and of St. Margaret, and that they had privately revealed to her that she should raise the  siege of Orleans and have Charles, whom she calls her king, crowned, and should drive out  all the adversaries of the kingdom of France; against the wishes of her father and mother, she left them, and of her own initiative and will, went to  Robert de Baudricourt, captain of Vaucouleurs, to inform him, according to the command of  St. Michael, and of St. Catherine and St. Margaret, of the visions and revelations made to  her by God, as she claims, and to ask the said Robert to help her to accomplish the said  revelations. And, twice refused by the said Robert, and being returned home, she received once more by revelation the command to return to him, and the third time she was welcomed  and received by the said Robert."

 To this tenth article she answers that she will abide by her other replies on this  matter.

 Now on Thursday, February And, she stated that, when she was about thirteen years, she  had a voice from God to help her and guide her. The first time she was much afraid: it  came towards noon on a summer's day, in her father's garden, when she was not fasting, and  had not fasted on the previous day. She heard the voice on her right, towards the church,  and she seldom heard it without a light. This light came from the same side as the voice,  and generally there was a great light. When she came to France she often heard a great  voice; and, for the first time, there was a light. She added that if she was in a wood she  heard the voices well; and it seemed to her a worthy voice, and she believed it was sent  to her from God. After she had heard it three times she knew it was the voice of an angel.  She said too that the voice always protected her well, and that she understood it well. Asked what instruction this voice gave her for the salvation of her soul, she answered it  taught her to be good and to go to church often, and that she must come to France. And she  added that the examiner would not learn from her, this time, in what form the voice  appeared to her. Further, the voice told her, two or three times a week, to leave and come  to France, and her father was to know nothing of her leaving. The voice told her to come,  and she could no longer stay where she was; it told her she would raise the siege of  Orleans. When she reached Vaucouleurs she recognized Robert de Baudricourt, although she  had never seen him; she told him that through her voices it had been revealed to her that  she must come to France; she recognized the said Robert through her voice which told her  it was he. Now he twice repulsed her, the third time he received her, and gave her an  escort as her voice had foretold.

 On Saturday, February 24th, asked at what time on the preceding day she had heard the  voice, she answered that she had heard it then, and on that 24th of February, three times  in all. First in the morning, next at Vespers, and lastly when the Ave Maria was rung; she  often heard it more frequently than she said. And the morning before, whilst she was  asleep, the voice woke her without touching her, but by speaking to her; she did not know  if the voice was in the room, but she was certain it was in the castle; she confessed that  when the voice came to her for the first time she was in or about her thirteenth year.

. . .

 On Thursday, March 1st asked if since the preceding Tuesday day she had not spoken with  St. Catherine and St. Margaret, she answered yes, both on that and on the previous day,  but she did not know at what hour, but there is not a day but she hears them.

 On Monday, March 12th, asked if she inquired of her voices whether she should tell her  father and mother of her leaving, she answered that, regarding her father and mother, her  voices would have been glad for her to tell them, had it not been for the difficulties  they would have raised if she had done so. For her part, she would not have told them for  anything; the voices left it to her to reveal her going to her parents, or be silent.  Asked about the dreams her father had of her going away, she answered that her mother told  her several times that whilst she was still at home her father said he had dreamt of  Jeanne's going away with soldiers; and they took great care to keep her safely, and held  her in great subjection; she obeyed them in all things, except in the incident at Toul, in the action for marriage. She had heard her mother tell how her father said to her  brothers: "If I thought what I dreamed was going to happen, I should want you to  drown her, and if you would not, I would do it myself." Her father and mother almost  lost their senses when she left for Vaucouleurs. Asked whether these thoughts came to her  father after she had had her visions and her voices, she answered yes, more than two years  after she first heard the voices."

 . . .


 "And, the better and more easily to accomplish her plan, the said Jeanne required  the said Captain to have a male costume made for her, with arms to match; which he did,  reluctantly, and with great repugnance, finally consenting to her demand. When these  garments and these arms were made, fitted and completed, the said Jeanne put off and  entirely abandoned woman's clothes; with her hair cropped short and round like a young fop's, she wore shirt, breeches, doublet, with hose joined together and fastened to the  said doublet by 20 points, long leggings laced on the outside, a short mantle reaching to the knees, or thereabouts, a close-cut cap, tightfitting boots and buskins,  long spurs, sword, dagger, breastplate, lance and other arms in the style of a  man-at-arms, with which she performed actions of war and affirmed that she was fulfilling  the commands of God as they had been revealed to her."

 To this twelfth article Jeanne answers that she refers to her other replies on this  matter. In consequence, asked whether she took this dress and these arms and other uniform  of war by God's command, she answers: "I refer as formerly to what I have already  said in reply to this."

 Now on Thursday, February 22nd, she declared that her voice had told her to go to  Robert, captain of Vaucouleurs, and he would give her men-at-arms; to which she answered  that she was a poor maid who could neither ride nor fight. She declared that she had told  an uncle that she had to go to Vaucouleurs, so he took her there. Further, that when she  went to her king, she wore man's dress. Also that before she went to her lord the king the  Duke of Lorraine sent for her; she went, and told him she wanted to go to France. The Duke  questioned her about recovering his health, but she told him she knew nothing of that, and  spoke to him little of her journey.

 She told the Duke to give her his son and his men to take her to France, and she would  pray for his health. She journeyed to the Duke by safe conduct, and returned to  Vaucouleurs. On leaving Vaucouleurs she wore man's dress, carried a sword which the said  Robert gave her, but no other arms, and was accompanied by a knight, a squire, and four  servants. She went to the town of St. Urbain, and slept in the abbey. During this journey  she passed through Auxerre where she heard Mass in the great church, and frequently had  her voices with her. Further, the said Robert made those who were escorting her swear to lead her safely and surely, and when she left he said to her: "Go,  go, and come what may." She said also that she had to change to man's costume since  she believed her counsel in that respect was good: that she went without hindrance to her  king to whom she sent letters for the first time when she was yet at Ste. Catherine de  Fierbois.

 On Tuesday, February 27th, asked if her voice instructed her to wear the habit of a  man, she answered that the dress is but a little thing, the least of all; but she did not  wear man's dress at anybody's counsel, she wore it, and did everything, only at the  command of Our Lord and His angels. She did not wear this dress at Robert's bidding. Asked  if she had done well to wear this dress, she answered that to her mind everything she did  at God's bidding was well done, and she expects good warrant and help for it. She said,  too, that she had a sword which she took at Vaucouleurs.

 On the 12th of March, asked if it was at Robert's request that she wore man's dress,  and if the voice had given her any command in connection with Robert, she answered as  before. Of the voice she said that everything good which she had done had been at the  instance of her voices; and, in respect of the dress, she would answer another time, for  at present she was not advised, but would reply on the next day.

 On Saturday, March 17th, asked what warrant or aid she expects from Our Lord from the  fact that she wears man's dress, she answers that in this as in other respects she wanted  no other recompense than the salvation of her soul.


 "The said Jeanne attributes to God, to His angels and to His Saints instructions  that are contrary to the honesty of womankind, forbidden by divine law, abominable to God  and man, and prohibited under penalty of anathema by ecclesiastical decrees, such as the wearing of short, tight, and dissolute male habits, those  underneath the tunic and breeches as well as the rest; and, according to their bidding,  she often dressed in rich and sumptuous habits, precious stuffs and cloth of gold and  furs; and not only did she wear short tunics, but she dressed herself in tabards and garments open at the sides, whilst it is notorious that when she was captured she was  wearing a loose cloak of cloth of gold, a cap on her head and her hair cropped round in  man's style. And in general, having cast aside all womanly decency, not only to the scorn  of feminine modesty, but also of well-instructed men, she had worn the apparel and  garments of most dissolute men, and in addition, had borne weapons of offense. To  attribute this to the bidding of God, His holy angels and virgin saints, is blasphemy of  Our Lord and His saints, setting at nought the divine decrees, infringement of canon law,  the scandal of her sex and womanly decency, the perversion of all modesty of outward  bearing, the approbation and encouragement of most reprobate examples of conduct."

 To this thirteenth article, Jeanne answers: "I have not blasphemed God or His  saints."

 On Tuesday, February 27th, asked if she thought the instruction to wear man's dress was  lawful, she answered that everything she did was at God's command; and that, if He had  bidden her wear a different dress, she would have done so, for it was God's bidding. Asked  whether she thought that in this particular instance she had done well, she replied that  she did not wear it without God's command, and that no single action of hers was otherwise than at His command.

 On Saturday, the 3rd, asked whether when she went to her king for the first time, he  inquired if she had changed her dress after revelation, she answered: "I replied to  this before," and "nevertheless, I do not recall that I was asked that."  She added it is written at Poitiers. On the same day, asked if she believed that she would  err or commit mortal sin by returning to woman's clothes, she answered she would do better  to obey and serve her sovereign Lord, namely God.


 "The said Jeanne affirms that it was right so to wear garments and habits of  dissolute men; and will persist therein, saying that she must not abandon them, except  with express permission by revelation from God, to the injury of God, of His angels and  His saints."

 To this fourteenth article Jeanne answers: "I do not do ill to serve God;  to-morrow you shall have a reply." The same day, asked by one of the assessors if she  had received instruction or revelation to wear man's dress, she answers that her reply has  been given, and she leaves it at that: then says that she will send answer the next day. She adds that she knows well who made her wear man's dress, but she does not know how she  ought to reveal it.

 On Saturday, February 24th, asked if she desired a woman's habit, she answered:  "If you will give me permission, send me one. I will take it and go: otherwise I do  not want one. I am content with this, since it is God's will that I should wear it."

 On Monday, March 12th, asked whether she did not think she was doing wrong to wear  man's dress, she answered no; and even at that moment, if she were back with her own  party, it seemed to her that it would be to the great good of France for her to do as she  did before her capture.

 On Saturday, March 17th, asked why, since she declares her wearing of male attire to be  at God's command, she asks for a woman's shift in the event of her death, she answered it  were enough for her if it were long.


 "The said Jeanne having repeatedly asked permission to hear Mass, was admonished  to put off man's dress and return to woman's dress; her judges gave her hope that she  would be allowed to hear Mass and receive Communion if she would finally put off man's  dress and wear female attire, as befits her sex. She would not agree, and preferred not to  take Communion and the holy offices, rather than abandon this dress, pretending that by so  doing she would displease God, so revealing her obstinacy, her stubbornness in evil, her  want of charity, her disobedience to the Church, and the scorn she has of the holy  sacraments."

 To this fifteenth article, on this Tuesday the 27th of March, Jeanne answers that she  would much rather die than turn back on Our Lord's command.

 On this same day, asked if she will put off man's dress and hear Mass, she replies that  she will not yet put it off, and that it is not on her that the day depends when she may  do so. '

 She says that if the judges refuse to let her hear Mass, it is in God's power to let  her hear Mass when it pleases Him, without them.

 As for the remainder of the article, she answers that she confesses she has been  admonished to wear woman's dress; but she denies the irreverence and the succeeding  charges.

 On Thursday, March 15th, asked which she would prefer, to wear woman's dress and hear  Mass or keep to male costume and not hear Mass, she answered: "Promise me I shall  hear Mass if I am in woman's dress, and I will answer you." Whereupon the examiner  said he would promise, and Jeanne then answered: "What do you say if I have sworn and  promised to our king not to put off this dress? Yet I answer you: Have a long dress,  reaching down to the ground, with no train, made for me, and give it to me to go to Mass; and then on my return I will put  on once more the dress I have." Asked once and for all whether she would wear a  woman's dress and go to hear Mass, she answered: "I will have counsel on it, and then  I will answer you." And in honor of God and of Our Lady she urged she would be  allowed to hear Mass in this good town. Whereupon she was told to take a woman's dress,  simply and absolutely. She replied: "Give me a dress such as the daughters of a  burgess wear, a houppelande, and also a woman's hood; and I will wear it to go and hear  Mass." Moreover she said, as urgently as she could, that she besought us to permit  her to hear Mass in the dress she wore, without any change.

 On Saturday, March 17th, questioned on the subject of the woman's dress offered to her  so that she could hear Mass, she answered that she would not put it on till it should  please Our Lord; and if it be that she must be brought to judgment and stripped, she asks  the lords of the Church to grant her the mercy of a woman's shift and a hood for her head;  for she would rather die than turn back from her Lord's command. She firmly believes God will not permit her to be brought so low, or be without His aid, or miracle. Asked whether  her saying she would take a woman's dress if they would let her go would please God, she  answered that if she were given permission to go in woman's dress she would immediately  put on man's dress and do what Our Lord bade her, and that nothing in the world would  induce her to swear not to take up arms or wear man's dress, to accomplish Our Lord's will  and pleasure.


 "The said Jeanne, after her capture, at the castle of Beaurevoir and at Arras, was  repeatedly and charitably admonished by noble and eminent persons of both sexes to abandon man's dress and to wear habits  decently fitting her sex. This she absolutely refused, and still obstinately persists in  her refusal to do, as well as the other duties fitting to her sex; in all things she  behaves more like a man than a woman."

 To this sixteenth article Jeanne confesses that she was admonished at Arras and at  Beaurevoir to wear woman's dress, and that she refused and still refuses. As for the other  womanly duties, she says there are enough other women to do them.

 On Saturday, March 3rd, asked if she recalls whether the clerks of her own party who  examined her, some for the space of a month, others for three weeks, did not question her  about the changing of her dress, she replied that she did not remember: that, however,  they did ask her where she assumed her male costume, and she told them it was at  Vaucouleurs. Asked if they inquired of her if she assumed it because of her voices, she  said: "That is not in your case." Further asked if she was not asked to change  her habit at Beaurevoir, she answered: "Yes, truly"; and she said she would not  without God's leave. The Demoiselle of Luxembourg asked Jean de Luxembourg not to deliver  her to the English, and with the Lady of Beaurevoir offered her a woman's dress, and told  her to wear it. She replied that she had not God's permission, and it was not yet time.  She added that Messire Jean de Pressy and others at Arras did not offer her a woman's  dress; others asked her to change her dress. Moreover, she said that if she had had to do  it she would rather have done so at the request of these two ladies than of any other  ladies in France, save her queen. Asked also whether when God revealed to her that she  should change to man's dress, it was by the voice of St. Michael, or by the voice of St.  Catherine or St. Margaret, she answered: "You will learn no more for the  present."


 "When the said Jeanne came, thus clothed and armed, into the. presence of the said  Charles, she made amongst others three promises to him: the first that she would raise the  siege of Orleans; the second that she would get him crowned at Reims; the third she would  take vengeance of his enemies, that she would kill them all by her magic art, drive them  out of the kingdom, both the English and the Burgundians. She boasted publicly of these promises many times in different places; and to increase faith in her acts and sayings,  she then and thenceforth made use of spells, and showed up the habits, life, and secret  actions of people coming into her presence whom she had never seen or known, and boasted  that her knowledge came by revelation."

 To this seventeenth article Jeanne replied that she bore to her king news from God  saying that Our Lord would restore his kingdom, would have him crowned at Reims, and would  expel his enemies. She was God's messenger to that effect; and told him to set her boldly  to work, and she would raise the siege of Orleans. She spoke, she said, of the whole  kingdom, and if the Lord Duke of Burgundy and other subjects of the realm did not come to  obedience, her king would compel them by force. She said, with regard to the end of the  article of recognizing Robert and her king: "I hold to what I said before."

 On Thursday, February 22nd, she confessed that when she came to Vaucouleurs she  recognized Robert de Baudricourt although she had never seen him, because her voice told  her it was he. She said that she found her king at Chinon, where she arrived towards noon,  and lodged at an inn; and after dinner, she went to her king at his castle, and she  recognized him from the others, when she entered the chamber, by her voices; and she told the king  she wanted to fight the English

 On March 13th, asked about a certain married priest and a lost cup, she answered she  knew nothing of that, and had never heard of it.


 "The said Jeanne, as long as she remained with the said Charles, dissuaded him and  his men with all her power from negotiating any treaty of peace with his enemies,  continually incited her party to murder and shed human blood, affirming that there could  be no peace but by the sword and the lance's point: that it was so ordained of God, since  the king's enemies would not otherwise yield what they held of the realm, and therefore to  make war on them was to her mind of the greatest benefit to all Christendom."

 To this eighteenth article Jeanne answers that she summoned the Duke of Burgundy both  by letter and ambassadors to make peace with her king. As for the English, the only peace  with them is by their return to their own country, to England. On the rest of the 'article  she has made other replies, to which she refers.

 On Tuesday, February 27th, asked why she did not conclude a treaty with the captain of  Jargeau, she answered that the lords of her party replied to the English that they would  not get the delay of a fortnight for which they asked, but must go off, with their horses,  immediately. For her own part she said they could retire with their doublets, and their  life safe, if they wished; otherwise they would be taken by assault. Asked if she had any conversation with her counsel, or voices, to find out whether or not to grant the delay,  she answered that she had no recollection.


 "The said Jeanne, by consulting demons and employing spells, sent for a certain  sword hidden in the church of Ste. Catherine de Fierbois, which she had maliciously and  deceitfully hid or had hidden in this church, so that by misleading princes, nobles,  clergy, and common folk, she might more easily induce them to believe that it was by revelation that she knew the sword was there, and they might more readily put absolute  faith in her sayings."

 To this nineteenth article on this Tuesday the 27th of March, she answers that she  refers to her earlier answers in this connection: the rest of the article she denies.

 On Tuesday, February 27th, asked if she had been to Ste. Catherine de Fierbois, she  answered yes; that she had heard Mass there three times on the same day, and then went on  to Chinon. The same Tuesday she said she had a sword from the church of Ste. Catherine de  Fierbois that she sent for when at Tours or Chinon; it was in the earth behind the altar,  and immediately afterwards the sword was found, all rusted. Asked how she knew the sword  was there, she replied it was in the ground, rusted over, with five crosses upon it; she  knew through her voices, and said she had never seen the man she sent to fetch it. She  wrote to the clergy asking if it was their pleasure she should have this sword, and they  sent it to her. She thought it was not buried deep behind the altar; she did not know  exactly whether it was in front or behind the altar, yet she thought she wrote it was  behind. As soon as the sword was found, she added, the priests rubbed it and the rust fell  off at once without effort. An armorer of Tours fetched it. The priests of Ste. Catherine  and also of Tours gave her a scabbard; there were two, one of crimson velvet, the other of  cloth of gold. She herself had another made of very strong leather, and added that when she was captured she had not this sword with her, though  she wore it continually until she reached St. Denis. Asked how it was blessed, whether she  said or asked any benediction over the sword, she answered she had never asked blessing  for it or known how to. She loved the sword, since it had been found in the church of St.  Catherine whom she loved.