While doing research on the Internet about computer hacking for this guide, the following invitation appeared on my screen: "Click here to see what I already know about your hard drive." I clicked and found a list of the directories on my hard drive. I was shocked to learn that I could open and read, on the Internet, almost all my personal files.
The computer at the other end of that link could have, without my knowledge, used the link to my computer to automatically download all my files. Or to install a "backdoor" on my computer that gives the other computer access to my files at any time in the future when I am connected to the Internet. That other computer could be located in a foreign country, anywhere in the world, and I would have no way of knowing it. Yes, an Internet connection really is a potential two-way street.
That personal experience was on my home computer. At the office, I like to assume I am protected by a firewall, encryption, and other security devices, but in the war of wits between hackers and computer security professionals, the hackers win too often.
Expert hackers create and pass on to others sophisticated software tools to exploit both human and technical weaknesses in the security of computer systems -- password crackers, war dialers, vulnerability scanners, sniffers, IP spoofers, and others. Because many of these tools are available on the Internet, relative newcomers can download and use them, raising the level of sophistication of hackers of all types.
Once inside the system, the hackers second goal is to get what is called "root" access. That usually requires finding a technical weakness. Root access means the hacker has unrestricted access to the inner workings of the system. With root access the hacker can:
As one hacker explained it, "Once youre on the inside, its just payday. Youre in heaven." 1
The initial foothold into the system is the toughest part. Often, the hacker will be working via the Internet, which is open to everyone, and will be trying to penetrate a network that is protected by a "firewall." A firewall is a series of programs and devices intended to protect a network from outside intruders. A strong firewall will identify and authenticate users trying to access the network from outside, thus limiting access to authorized persons. Sometimes the hacker is an insider, an employee already behind the firewall who has authorized access to one part of the system and then hacks his or her way into other protected files within the system.
The hackers success in breaching the firewall often comes from some form of human failure -- especially weaknesses caused inadvertently by lack of computer security education, carelessness, or gullibility of computer users. Technical weaknesses in the system obviously play a role, but even those may be traceable to some form of human error, such as employee susceptibility to "social engineering" or a systems administrators failure to update the firewall software promptly each time the hackers expose a weakness and the manufacturer makes a patch available to plug the hole.
Related Topic: How We Unknowingly Make It Easy for the Hackers.
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