Program Highlights(updated 5/2/13)
All locations are on Wright State University campus, in the Student Union building, unless otherwise stated
Stanley Roscoe Best Student Paper Competition Finalists’ Presentation (Monday, 1400-1600, Atlantis)
This year, six student finalists were selected by a panel of judges based on paper submissions. The finalists are requested to present their work to the panel of judges on Monday, May 6 and the winner will be recognized during the Wednesday Banquet. All are welcome to attend the finalists’ presentations.
Aviation Soccer Cup (Monday, 1700 - 1800, Field 4)
All are welcome to a game of co-ed soccer outside of the Student Union! The game is for players of all ages and all ability levels. According to the ISAP authority, soccer is the best remedy for jet lags. Refreshments will be provided. Just come suitably dressed (locker rooms in the Student Union can be used for changing if needed). No reservation is needed but it would be good to coordinate with John Flach, firstname.lastname@example.org
Opening Reception (Monday 1900-2100, Joshi Atrium)
We will celebrate the Opening of the Symposium at the Krishan and Vicky Joshi Research Center. During the reception, there will be a demonstration of the uses of virtual environments and visualization systems in aviation research at the R.C. Appenzeller Visualization Laboratory. The laboratory includes a stereographic rear projection display, a tiled 3-wall stereographic immersive display, and a 4-walled stereographic immersive CAVE-like display. Collaborators among both the Human Effectiveness and Sensors Directorates of the Air Force Research Laboratory and Wright State University have been using this facility to study advanced technologies for enhancing performance in complex aviation applications.
Keynote Address (Tuesday 0830-955, Apollo)
Applying Systems Thinking to Aviation Psychology
Dr. Nancy Leveson
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Making significant progress in aviation safety requires a broad view that considers the system as a whole and not just individual components of the system (hardware, software, humans) in isolation. This presentation will describe a new path forward that can assist us in managing safety in the increasingly complex aviation systems of the future.
About Dr. Nancy Leveson
Invited Address (Wednesday 1300-1350, Apollo)
Ecological Flight Deck Design: The World Behind The Glass
Dr. Max Mulder
Technical University Delft
In the design of human-machine interfaces, a central question is how to obtain and validate a design that is capable of supporting an operator's situation awareness of the process under control. Whereas many research efforts go into the question of 'what is the operator aware of?' - the awareness - fewer investigations address the problem of determining what the operator should be aware of in the first place, that is, ‘what exactly constitutes a situation’? The presentation will discuss the research activities at TU Delft that aim at answering this second question, and create ‘ecological’ human-machine systems that support pilots (and air traffic controllers) in their decision making. The clever use of automation tools and novel visualizations will be presented that allow operators in dealing with complex tasks, such as airborne self-separation.
About Dr. Max Mulder
Invited Address (Thursday 1300-1350, Apollo)
An Earthbound Perspective on Orientation Illusions Experienced in Aerospace Flight
Dr. James Lackner
The vestibular system of the inner ear is often likened to an inertial guidance system with tri-axial linear and angular accelerometers. The otolith organs respond to linear acceleration with a neural output proportional to the resultant of gravitational and linear accelerations, the gravitoinertial acceleration (GIA), and the semicircular canals to angular acceleration with an output proportional to head velocity. Many orientation illusions experienced in aviation and in space flight (for example the oculogravic, somatogravic, “giant hand”, and inversion illusions) have been attributed to the otolith organs being unable to distinguish gravitational from linear accelerations. It is important to realize, however, that humans and other animals did not evolve in conditions where changes in GIA above and below 1g were other than transient and associated with selflocomotion or wind or sea currents. I will describe a new approach in which GIA-driven otolith activity is always interpreted in relation to a base-line value of 1g, the acceleration of Earth gravity. This model accounts for previous results obtained in weightless and high-force environments and makes unique predictions about perceived body and vehicle orientation in altered GIA-conditions that we have confirmed in experiments conducted in parabolic flight and on centrifuges. Our new approach also emphasizes the critical importance of contact forces on the body surface and of cognitive factors as well as vestibular signals in determining apparent self-orientation and aircraft or spacecraft orientation.
About Dr. James Lackner
Plenary Practitioner and Researcher Panel (Wednesday and Thursday 0830-0955, Apollo)
Synthetic Task Environments: Opportunities and Challenges
Organizers: Scott Galster (711 HPW/RHC), Winston Bennett (711 HPW/RHC), & John Flach (Wright State University)
A synthetic task environment (STE) is an interactive simulation designed to capture the critical dynamics of cognitive work for the purposes of research, training, and evaluation. Advances in interface (i.e., displays and controls) and information technologies make it possible to bring greater degrees of complexity into the ‘school house’ and the experimental laboratory. On the one hand, these STEs allow performance to be evaluated in complex situations that are more representative of natural work environments. On the other hand, these STEs offer opportunities for additional degrees of control with regards to measurement and replication that would be difficult or impossible in the natural contexts. The panelists assembled for this conference will discuss the roles, opportunities and challenges in the use of STEs for a variety of purposes.
Practitioner Panel: Practitioners will be asked to share their experiences and aspirations with respect to using STEs for training, evaluation, and selection. What are the challenges associated with using STEs for these purposes (e.g., to improve the quality and efficiency of training)? What are the opportunities that STEs offer that are not being realized as well as they could be?
Dr. Michael Coovert, University of South Florida
Dr. Dexter Fletcher, Institute for Defense Analyses
Dr. Michael Garrity, Aptima, Inc.
Dr. Joseph Sullivan, Naval Postgraduate School
Moderator: Dr. Winston Bennett, 711 HPW/RHC
Researcher Panel: Researchers will be asked to consider the challenges and opportunities that STEs offer with respect to theory and measurement. Particular interest is in the opportunity to more fully explore the closed-loop dynamics of cognitive systems where performance is simultaneously shaping and being shaped by the situation dynamics.
Dr. Nancy Cooke, Arizona State University
Dr. John Flach, Wright State University
Dr. Alex Kirlik, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Dr. Amy Pritchett, Georgia Institute of Technology
Dr. Rene van Paassen, Delft University of Technology
Moderator: Dr. Scott Galster, 711 HPW/RHC
Poster Sessions (Tuesday 1615-1740 and Wednesday 1545-1705, Apollo)
We will continue the well-received tradition of Poster Sessions that started in 2009. Symposium attendees will be able to circulate and discuss the latest findings with the presenters while enjoying hors d'oeuvres and a cash bar. The collegial atmosphere will be a great way to conclude the day’s technical activities and transition into the evening’s activities.
Night Out at the Greene (Tuesday Evening)
Following the Tuesday Poster Session, Symposium participants can visit The Greene in Beavercreek for some shopping and dining. The Greene is a 72-acre new town center featuring pedestrian-friendly streetscapes, open-air gathering spaces, and over 20 places to eat. Transportation to and from the Greene will be available. See http://www.thegreene.com/
The ISAP Banquet at the National Museum of the Air Force at Wright-Patterson’s Air Force Base (Wednesday Evening)
The official ISAP Banquet will be held Wednesday evening. And, what a better place to meet than the National Museum of the Air Force at Wright-Patterson’s Air Force Base! The Air Force Museum galleries present military aviation history, boasting more than 400 aerospace vehicles along with thousands of historical items that bring history to life and connect the Wright brothers' legacy with today's Air Force. The museum will be opened from 1800 to 2200. Gift shop will be open from 1800 to 1900. Dinner will be served at 1915. Transportation to and from the Banquet will be provided.
Following a dinner among the historic aircraft, musical entertainment will be provided by the Air Force Systems Go musical Combo. Systems Go is a popular music combo from the United States Air Force Band of Flight, stationed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. This versatile group has performed with Bob Hope, Earl Thomas Connally, Stevie Wonder, Ricky Skaggs, Ben E. King, Bobby McFerrin, and Lee Greenwood. Systems Go has also erformed at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Dollywood, on the Nashville Network, and at major air shows throughout the Midwest United States.
- Banquet Speaker: Dr. Amy Pritchett, Georgia Tech
A Brief History of the Pilot
Our concept of the pilot has changed dramatically from the start of heavier-than-air flight. Public notions of the pilot have evolved from the very physical shifting of weight and reliance on our eyes, to glamorous notions of risk and adventure, to the exact requirements of participating in the safest transportation system ever. Let us briefly review the evolution of flight in terms of the role of the pilot, ending with the choice posed by Richard Bach: Aviation or Flying - Take Your Pick. http://www.whyfly.aero/aviation-or-flying/
About Dr. Amy Pritchett
- Induction of ISAP Honorary Fellows for their enduring and extraordinary contributions to the field of aviation psychology.
- Dr. R. Key Dismukes is former Chief Scientist for Aerospace Human Factors in the Human Systems Integration Division at NASA Ames Research Center. His research addresses cognitive issues involved in the skilled performance of pilots and other experts, their ability to manage challenging situations, and their vulnerability to error. Previously, Dr. Dismukes was Director of Life Sciences at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. He has published several books and numerous scientific papers in basic and applied psychology and neuroscience, and has written on the implications of science and social policy for the public. He holds airline transport pilot, B737 and Citation type, and glider instructor ratings. He won the 2010 national championships for the 1-26 sailplane. Read more
- Dr. Henry L. Taylor is Professor and Director Emeritus of the Institute of Aviation, University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign. He is a certified flight instructor. He is a Colonel (Retired) in the United States Air Force including a tour as a combat aircrew member on a C-130E aircraft in Vietnam. Dr. Taylor’s research interests are concerned with the design and instructional use of flight training devices, simulators and personal computers. He has published over 100 research reports. Dr. Taylor is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, the American Psychological Society, the Aerospace Medical Association, and Aerospace Human Factors Association (AsHFA). He has received numerous civilian and military awards for his work including the Longacre Award, the Franklin V. Taylor Award, the Paul T. Hansen Award, the John C. Flanagan Award, the AsHFA Presidential Award, and the APA’s Presidential Citation. Read more
- Dr. Earl L. Wiener is Professor Emeritus of management science and industrial engineering at theUniversity of Miami. He served as a pilot in the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Army and is rated in fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. Dr. Wiener has made extensive contribution to aviation human factors research, including pioneering studies of flight deck automation and crew resource management. Through field studies with various airlines, he contributed scientific insight to pilot training for automated aircraft, and he identified potential pitfalls of advanced flight-deck technology that could result in pilot error. Dr. Wiener is a fellow of the Human Factors Society and the American Psychological Society. Dr. Wiener has published numerous papers and is co-editor of two books: Human Factors in Aviation (1988) and Cockpit Resource Management (1993). Read more
- Stanley Roscoe Best Student Paper Award
Lunch-In (Thursday, 1140-1300, Apollo)
As part of the last day of the Symposium, all attendees are invited to participate in a relaxing box lunch together at which we can share our experiences and plan for our next meeting.
Student’s Lunch with an Expert. If you are a student and would like to have an informal lunch with an Aviation Psychology expert; here’s your chance! Six experts have been invited to lunch with a small number of students to share their experiences and insights regarding the field of Aviation Psychology. They are Drs. Nancy Cooke, Key Dismukes, Patricia Jones, Max Mulder, Michael Vidulich, and Christopher Wickens. Enter your name and contact information in a drawing bowl at the Registration Desk by Wednesday 1600. You may enter your name in as many bowls as you like. We will randomly draw a lucky few to lunch with each of the experts.
Dr. Nancy Cooke, Arizona State University
Dr. Key Dismukes, NASA Ames Research Center
Dr. Patricia Jones, Beckman Institute, University of Illinois
Dr. Max Mulder, Technical University of Deft
Dr. Michael Vidulich, Air Force Research Laboratory
Dr. Christopher Wickens, Alion Science and Technology
International Night (Thursday Evening) New!
A tour of the historic home of Orville Wright will be followed by a picnic at the Carillon Park as a special opportunity to enjoy a connection to Dayton’s rich aviation history. The tour will visit Orville Wright’s mansion, Hawthorne Hill. Orville lived at Hawthorne Hill for 35 years and its design included many innovative features that reflected his curiosity and inventiveness. Come see the home of this aviation titan! The picnic will be held at Carillon Park, a beautiful 65-acre venue located on the banks of the great Miami River. It will be a great place to have a relaxing time with friends from around the world. All are welcome to this event but international guests are especially invited. Transportation will be provided. Pick-up location to be announced.
Wright-Patterson Lab Tour (Friday 0900-1100) New!
As examples of the Aviation Psychology research being conducted in the Dayton area, this tour will highlight the two service laboratories that are located on the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. First, the tour will visit the Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU-Dayton) located on the base. NAMRU-Dayton's Aeromedical Directorate investigates causes of, and potential solutions to, threats to pilot and aircrew health, safety, and mission effectiveness. Topics of interest at the lab include: spatial awareness and disorientation, motion sickness, pilot selection testing, fatigue modeling and countermeasures, display design, and visual performance/ vision standards. Tour stops will include NAMRU-Dayton's hypoxia, motion sickness, and fatigue countermeasures laboratories, and the Disorientation Research Device. Next, the tour will visit some of the Air Force’s Human Effectiveness Directorate’s laboratories including labs developing and optimizing the integration of modern communications and networking capabilities into the equipment suite of Battlefield Airmen as well as a visualization laboratory engaged in the development of modern data exploitation and 3D display technologies for Air Force applications. Ever since the days of Paul Fitts, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base has been a hot-bed of aviation psychology research. Come and see what the current generation of Air Force and Navy researchers is up to! Transportation will be provided. Pick up will be at the Student Union entrance at 0840.
Special Note: To allow time to process the necessary paperwork to obtain permission to enter the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, please be sure to register for the Symposium and to furnish the requested information for the tour no later than March 25, 2013.
WM01: Applied Cognitive Systems Engineering in Aviation
(Monday 0830 – 1730, Library Annex 012)
Participants may go directly to the Library Annex or arrive at the Skylight Lobby of the Student Union 15 minutes early and a volunteer will lead the participants to the workshop.
René van Paassen, Clark Borst, Jan Comans , & Joost Ellerbroek
(Delft University of Technology)
Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) and its main application, Ecological Interface Design (EID), are approximately 30 years old now. Starting with an example application in process control, and a seminal publication in 1992, EID found its way into process control first. This sparked interest in other safety-critical application domains, most notably, vehicle control in the aviation domain. A distinctive trait of the approach has been the recognition that in all human endeavors we are bound by the constraints posed upon us by our surroundings. Our design choices, economics, goals and needs and the physics of the world constrain the possible courses of action. The starting point in CSE is to determine what these constraints are. In contrast to “Cognitive Psychology” approaches, CSE starts not by looking what is inside the head (of the operator or user), but at what the head is inside of. EID continues by finding a visualization for the constraints thus discovered. In this full-day workshop a test case of designing a visualization for an Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) will be central. First, a theoretical background will be provided dealing with the utilization of a constraint-based design method in the aviation vehicle control domain. Second, an interface will be designed based upon the constraints thus discovered. Finally, the workshop applicants can participate in a multi-actor airborne separation assurance experiment. As such, this workshop completes a full design cycle comprising theory, modeling, and evaluation.
René van Paassen is associate professor at the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology. His work ranges from studies of perceptual processes and human manual control to complex cognitive systems, applying Cognitive Systems Engineering to the domain of vehicle control.
Clark Borst is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology. His expertise and interest lies in human-machine systems, cognitive systems engineering, and ecological interface design for the flight deck and air traffic control work stations
Joost Ellerbroek is a PhD candidate at Delft university of technology, faculty of aerospace engineering. His work focuses on the design and validation of an interface that supports interaction with airborne separation automation.
WM02: The Next Steps in Intelligent Cockpit Displays
(Monday 0830 – 1730, Discovery A)
Ronald Lofaro (Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University) & Kevin Smith (United Airlines/retired, USNR/retired)
This workshop is designed to be highly interactive, including Q&A, discussions, participant interplay and group "work assignments." Each participant will be provided a Workbook containing all needed information. The relevancy of this Workshop springs from 25 years of collaboration, publications and presentations on operational decision-making for aviation flight safety. This Workshop will demonstrate the next steps and a new level for computer-driven, cockpit automation. We posit that the pilot MUST be in the loop and in control of the plane: these are the Captain's responsibilities. Yet, we see almost incomprehensible decision and non-decision making errors made by pilots/crew. This led us to working on a decision-making and pilot guidance system for flight safety that is as complete as possible while keeping the Captain in his rightful role of risk identification/management. Today's airliners store vast amounts of information. Our intelligent cockpit system, with decision advisories and cockpit displays, will take advantage of this, using its 3 core components: the operational decision-making model (ODM) and 2 new functionalities: precision maneuver guidance (PMG) and mission performance evaluator (MPE). These components are integrated into a computer-driven, automated set of cockpit displays, often using existing displays such as the lower EICAS. The participants will examine some accidents in light of the new, tri-partite system; discussions will focus errors and on what could have been the intelligent cockpit system's role with possible outcomes. Next, the participants will be provided with a scripted United Airlines' line oriented evaluation (LOE) for pilot/crew in a full-up flight simulator (FS) as designed by Captain Smith. The group assignment will be to take this LOE and show if/where/how/why an intelligent cockpit system can play in it...with cogent analysis as to the "why" and the "where"... plus possible outcomes... for presentation and discussion.
Ronald John Lofaro, PhD is an aviation psychologist whose 16 years with the FAA included over 2 years as the sole FAA liaison to the USAF Research Labs and the USAF Aeronautical Systems Center at WPAFB, OH. He also spent 5 years with the Army Aviation Command, a year of which was doing on-site investigations, as a voting Board Member of an Army Safety Center "go-team," for Class A aviation accident investigation.
Kevin M. Smith is both a United Airlines Captain (Ret.) and a USNR Captain (Ret.). He spent multiple tours of duty flying fighter aircraft for the US Navy where he accumulated 4000 hours of military flight time, operating from 7 Aircraft Carriers. His airline pilot career resulted in type ratings in 5 Boeing aircraft to include the B-7777-200; Internationally qualified, with over 25,000 hours of flight time.
WM03: FAA Fatigue Training
(Monday 0830 – 1230, Discovery B)
Thomas Nesthus, Katrina Avers, & Darendia McCauley (Federal Aviation Administration’s Civil Aerospace Medical Institute)
Fatigue is an important human performance problem. The impact of fatigue, its risks, and mitigation have become key concepts managers and shift workers involved with aviation systems must acknowledge and understand. The understanding of and support for fatigue mitigation initiatives is critical. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is working to maintain the safety of the National Airspace System (NAS) and ensure the health and well-being of its workforces as well as all work forces within the aviation industry. Fatigue awareness and fatigue mitigation are important components of this effort. FAA has developed a full spectrum of fatigue awareness and mitigation programs designed to impact shift workers and managers within aviation systems, including: air traffic controllers and technical operations specialists, pilots, flight attendants, and maintenance workers. This workshop will present the fatigue science background used in the development of intervention materials and the modification of those materials to accommodate multiple vocational backgrounds of those involved with aviation systems. By learning about these fatigue issues; maintaining and distributing awareness; developing and using personal strategies to optimize sleep, maximize alertness and performance; and utilizing ergonomic scheduling principles as optimally as possible, a reduction in fatigue related risks can be achieved and contribute to safer operations through appropriate mitigations.
Thomas Nesthus is an Engineering Research Psychologist for the FAA’s Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Human Factors Research Division. Research activities have included the evaluation of fatigue and performance with flight and cabin crewmembers, ATCSs, and Tech Ops maintainers. He is currently assisting the Flight Standards Service—Air Transportation Division with the CFR part 117, Pilot Flight and Duty Time and Rest Requirements and the scientific evaluation of carrier FRMS proposals.
Katrina Avers is a Research Scientist at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute Human Factors Research Lab. Focal research activities include organizational assessment, training and education, risk assessment systems, and risk management programs for flight crew, cabin crew and maintenance technicians.
Darendia McCauley is a Research Psychologist for the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division, NAS Human Factors Safety Lab at the FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. Experience includes instructional systems design, program evaluation, psychometrics, research design, and job task analysis.
WM04: Pulp Fiction for Pilots: How to Transform Human Factors Theories into Interesting Articles
(Monday1330-1730, Discovery B)
Steve Swauger (Southwest Airlines Pilots Association)
This workshop will guide attendees through the process of transforming academic theories, models, and concepts into interesting and relevant articles for pilots. We will examine the challenges of educating pilots on academic theories, choosing effective media, selecting and narrowing the topic of interest, transforming academic principles into appealing formats, writing for the wide range of pilot background, ideas for making the article interesting, and considerations for editing and publishing. Attendees will complete a practical writing exercise to apply these ideas to their target audience. Attendees will receive a take-home guidebook.
Steve Swauger is a professional pilot of 32 years of military and airline experience. For 15 years, he has published over 125 articles for the Southwest Airlines Pilots’ Association members. His column, “The Human Factor:” examines a variety of topics in human factors, crew resource management, psychology, and accident investigation.
Symposia and Panels Description
Symposium: Sensor to Analyst: Improved Decision-Making in Aerial ISR Through Training and Decision Support Tools 302
(Tuesday 1015–1140, Discovery A)
Chair: Cullen Jackson
From sensors to analysts, modern day intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) requires concerted efforts from players in the aviation, aerospace, and intelligence domains to complete the Planning, Collection, Processing, Analysis, and Dissemination (PCPAD) cycle. While the pilots, analysts, and consumers of ISR products that participate in the PCPAD cycle have very different tasks and duties, all of them must constantly adapt to new environments, new challenges, and new enemies. The uncertainty generated by the nature of these environments places considerable decision-making and workload demands on the various operators. In this symposium, experts from government, industry, and the operational community come together to discuss the specific cognitive challenges placed on operators at each stage of PCPAD and how these challenges can be addressed through training, decision aiding, and automated tools. The overall goal of this symposium is to provide a macroscopic view of the PCPAD process by bringing together experts within individual phases. Although these lessons are primarily from intelligence activities, many of these issues and solutions will be directly relevant for the ongoing introduction of unmanned aerial vehicles to the civilian airspace. Current research and development efforts will be explored and new methods for addressing these gaps will be covered.
Panel: Automation Philosophy, Policy, Procedures, & Practices 286
(Tuesday 1015-1140, Atlantis)
Chair: Immanuel Barshi
The modern airline cockpit is increasingly automated. Advances in technology allow for lightweight equipment with low energy requirements and incredible computational power, the like of which would have been unimaginable only a few years ago. Early automation was designed only to relieve pilots of the need to continuously manipulate controls for flying the aircraft. Through the years, more advanced automation was developed that was able also to relieve the pilots of some navigation functions. Current automation has begun to relieve pilots of some decision-making functions. Future advances may allow aircraft automation to take on increasing authority over the entire flight. Following this trend, advances in automation continue to alter the role of the pilot. Because many of the decisions about the role of automation are made at the design stage, the manufacturer’s automation philosophy heavily influences airline operational philosophies about how and when the automation is to be used. As a result, conflicts between design philosophies and operational philosophies may emerge. Such conflicts often manifest themselves in inconsistent policies and procedures that may play out in incidents and accidents. Issues concerning the role of automation at individual airlines now dominate discussions of operational philosophy. Should automation operate “by consent” or “by exception”? What information should be provided to the pilot and in what form? What should the role of the pilot be in the modern airline cockpit? What is the role of airline management? What is the proper role of individual judgment? Decisions about how automation should be used influence how pilots are trained. Should pilots be trained to understand the automation and its full capabilities or only instructed in how to execute the functions prescribed by the airline? In this panel we will use pilot reports and data from aircraft incidents and accidents to discuss with the audience the relations between philosophy, policy, procedure and practice as they relate to current and future aircraft automation.
(Tuesday 1300–1425, Discovery A)
Chair: Andrea Georgiou
This symposium is a continuation from the 2011 ISAP symposium and will include recent technological advances in the simulation lab, as well as new measures and findings. In safety-critical industries such as aviation, safe and efficient operations require harmonious coordination and effective team performance across disciplines. Quite often, non-routine events that occur during flight operations require immediate and accurate responses from pilots, maintenance technicians, flight dispatchers, and air traffic controllers. Familiarity with the duties of other specializations, along with teamwork training in a simulated environment can result in more effective coordination. Currently, simulation training for such interfaces is rare. Abundant throughout the literature, the usefulness of simulation as an effective tool to improve team performance has been explored in many different safety-critical domains characterized by interdependent teams such as aviation, military, healthcare, and nuclear power industries (Burtscher, Kolbe, Wacker, & Manser, 2011; Howard, 2011; Salas, Bowers, & Rhodenizer, 1998; Waller, Gupta, & Giambatista, 2004). This symposium describes a one of a kind NASA-funded replica of a regional airline’s Flight Operations Center (known as the FOCUS lab). Undergraduate students from six aerospace specializations interactively complete a simulated work shift as employees in various roles of dispatchers, pilots, ramp controllers, maintenance technicians, crew schedulers, and weather briefers.
Symposium: NextGen 2018: What Is and Is Not Likely to Change for 312
(Tuesday 1445–1610, Apollo)
Chair: Emily Baumann
By leveraging existing and new technology, including satellite-based surveillance and navigation, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to support significant increases in both capacity and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Nearly a decade has passed since NextGen was mandated by Congress. The FAA has made great progress in identifying the technologies, automation, and procedures (i.e., NextGen Drivers) necessary to support the desired increases. In this symposium, human factors researchers funded by the FAA’s Human Factors Research and Engineering Group who have been at the forefront of NextGen as it has matured will describe what is likely – and unlikely – to change for air traffic controllers working in this safety-critical job by the NextGen Mid-Term (2018). Attendees will benefit from the unique experience of these researchers who have had access to the engineers and managers responsible for NextGen, and associated documentation, as they describe their research as summarized below. In order to determine the impact that NextGen will have on the job of the controller in the Mid-Term, an early step was to identify the Drivers that will likely be implemented by 2018. AIR will describe its strategic job analysis, which was designed to both describe the likely NextGen 2018 Drivers, and to evaluate how the job of the controller would change as a result of their implementation. Implications for human resource systems such as pre-employment selection and training will be discussed. Much of what will be possible in 2018 is due to the addition of advisors that are being built by developers into the automation that controllers will use. These advisors provide automation-generated suggestions for some of the most complex and highly cognitive tasks currently performed by controllers. NASA will discuss the results of a meta-analysis showing that very few of the tools are suitable for immediate operational implementation without the likelihood of serious negative consequences including controller mistrust of unworkable recommendations, disruption of controller workflow, reduction of controller situation awareness, or added workload. Finally, NextGen Drivers change the work environment for controllers. The Fort Hill Group will describe their review of the proposed NextGen Mid-Term Operational Improvements, which was completed to identify the potential for both the positive and negative impacts on the human contribution to risk in the NAS. The results show that while some of the human performance hazards present in current operations were reduced or eliminated, many new human performance hazards could also be introduced as these systems are implemented.
Symposium: Searching for Synergy: Trust in Human Technology Systems 149
(Tuesday 1445-1610, Atlantis)
Chair: Michael Coovert
To work effectively, individuals must trust those they rely upon as well as the technology used in their work. Trust is a core construct in nearly all of human interactions; in decision making we need to assess the trustworthiness of information and sources, in social networks we assess the source of our interactions along with their behaviors, intention, and motivations. This symposium deals with three aspects of trust: human-system trust in micro-UAV applications; human-human trust in aviation maintenance teams, and the quantification of the latent growth trajectory of trust as it evolves in distributed teams.
Symposium: Measuring Human Factors Success in Acquisitions? 300
(Wednesday 1015–1140, Discovery A)
Chair: Jason Demagalski
Human factors specialists work with a variety of stakeholders within acquisition programs and projects. Depending upon the organization and its acquisition structure, the exact stage/s of involvement may vary. Input may range from the initial concept stage through to operational implementation or merely an opportunity to “sign-off” at a stage when anything but acceptance would be unwelcomed. While everyone involved in a project is seeking success, it is not sufficient to assume that all involved have the same criteria for success. There are many intended and unintended consequences to an ambiguous definition of success. For example, human factors practitioners supply requirements up front for acquisitions, which even when met, do not guarantee a usable and successful outcome from a human factors perspective. Consequently, if we ensure that the project success criteria include valid and verifiable measures in terms of human performance then the emphasis on consulting and incorporating the design requirements of human factors practitioners up front will be enhanced. The extent to which this can be achieved will reflect the dominant measures of success for the given organization. The ultimate goal of human factors practitioners is for auditable and traceable human factors inputs to track from early requirement definition to final validation of human performance within the changed system. The central problem for human factors practitioners lies in what we call success. Is success when the hardware is installed? When the software functions correctly? When the operator can use the new tool/equipment? Ultimately, success must be when the overall system performance, as a result of the acquired system or tool, meets given criteria, one of which being that the human operator’s task performance is within the acceptable range. If an organization is striving for an acceptable level of system and task performance following any change, then success of the project should be based on achieving the appropriate human performance level of the operator. This symposium examines the concepts and definitions of human factors success, acceptable levels of task performance, and required human performance leading to the successful acquisition and implementation in civil aviation systems.
Symposium: New Avionics Technologies Human Factors 261
(Wednesday 1400-1525, Discovery A)
Chair: Michelle Yeh
Flight deck technologies have been changing at a rapid pace, requiring updates to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations, guidance, and policy. Modern avionics are key to achieving NextGen’s goals to increase efficiency, enhance safety, and improve situation awareness, both in the air and on the ground. Common themes across multiple avionics projects include usability, system integration, symbology, controls, human/pilot error, workload, and distraction. The purpose of this symposium is to address new and emerging avionics technologies to highlight key research issues, share lessons learned, and discuss how the FAA uses the results of this research. This symposium will focus on flight deck technologies that will assist in NextGen implementation by improving flight crew awareness through Cockpit Displays of Traffic Information (CDTI), Airport Moving Maps, Primary Flight Displays (PFDs), and portable technologies. Pilot performance and efficiency during NextGen operations, support for the infrastructure needed to enable efficient and safe use of these advanced flight deck technologies, and the corresponding impact on operational safety are important considerations. The results of human factors research will help the FAA Aviation Safety Organization establish evaluation criteria, operational procedures, and training recommendations.
Panel: Blending Aviation and Psychology with STEM – A Strategy to Grow Aviation Psychology 340
(Thursday 1015-1140, Discovery B)
Chair: Pamela Ansburg
In the United States, aviation psychology remains one of the lesser-known subfields of psychology,especially as one related directly to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Our educational system’s ability to produce individuals who are skilled in STEM areas is being outpaced by industries’ demand for a STEM-proficient workforce. Addressing this unmet need is motive for seeking new strategies for growing the demand for and practice of aviation psychology. Within that theme, our panel will address overarching challenges related to the recruitment, education, and placement of students into STEM related fields. We will then discuss how aspects of aviation psychology and aviation science might be blended to overcome various barriers to the recruitment, education, and placement of students into aviation psychology. A case example of utilizing learning strategies and hands-on experiences directly related to flight training and psychology will be presented as means for recruiting high school students into the field of aviation psychology. From that case and other related examples, the panel will suggest that because aviation psychology blends traditional STEM fields with psychology there should be aggressive efforts to elevate the profile of aviation psychology among both non-psychologists and psychologists. Objectives for this panel will be to discuss with audience members ways to (a) encourage students who identify with psychology, but not necessarily with science, to embrace and pursue learning about traditional STEM fields, (b) bridge the perceived differences between psychology and other STEM fields, and (c) to increase interest in aviation psychology as a viable career in STEM.
Symposium: Human–Centered Automation in Future Air Traffic Management Systems 270
(Thursday 1015-1140, Atlantis)
Chair: Clark Borst
Predicted air traffic growth, together with present economic and environmental concerns, are forcing a fundamental redesign of the air traffic management system (ATM). This redesign will focus in large part on sophisticated new forms of automation. In general, automation has improved productivity, efficiency, performance, and safety in various domains. However, there is also an abundance of empirical, operational, and theoretical evidence that the injudicious use of automation can introduce severe human and system performance problems, including transient workload peaks, “out-of-the-loop” situation awareness, vigilance problems, and skill degradation. Such potential problems are likely to be amplified in the future, as automation becomes increasingly capable of taking over the strategic and cognitive parts of the air traffic controller’s job. In Europe and in the United States, similar efforts are being undertaken to modernize the current ATM system. These efforts aim for a “human-centered,” as opposed to technology-driven, approach to automation design. The human-centered approach is built on the broader concept of human capabilities and limitations, and cautions that there should always remain a role for the human in the loop, to retain such abilities as inductive reasoning and complex pattern matching, which still escape computer design. However, human-centered automation is still a philosophy more than a design framework, and therefore continues to lack specific design guidance. As such, it is not clear how to develop automation that leverages the abilities of both human and machine, and a definite role division between human and machine in future ATM system has not yet been well defined. This session will showcase ATM research from Europe and the US in this field and present their work on new forms of ATM automation and their effects on human performance, acceptance, awareness, workload, and safety.
Symposium: Display Effectiveness and Neuroergonomics in Tactical Airlift 186
(Thursday 1545–1705, Apollo)
Chair: James Christensen
We'd like to present four papers, all of which stemmed from AFRL's work on behalf of the C-27J program office. The original problem was a poorly placed HUD with limited visibility to the pilot; we'll speak to the anthropometry of HUD placement, the workload and SA implications, visual ability as a predictor of SA and workload in this environment, and methods/lessons learned from this study with regards to workload assessment in flight.
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