Wright Way Policy 1103 – Emergency Management, establishes the framework for a comprehensive all hazards emergency management program at Wright State University.  The WSU Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) is based on that framework and is central to the emergency management program.  It guides how Wright State University conducts response and recovery operations. 

Introduction and Background

The EOP is built upon scalable, flexible, and adaptable coordinating structures to align key University roles and responsibilities with local jurisdictions, non-government organizations, and other external response partners.  It describes specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents that range from the serious, but purely local, to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters.

National Incident Management System (NIMS) was used in the development of the EOP.  Standard command and management structures are provided by NIMS that apply to response activities.  It provides a consistent, nationwide template to enable federal, state, tribal, and local governments, the private sector, and non-government organizations to work together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents regardless of cause, size, location, or complexity.  This consistency provides the foundation for utilization of the NIMS for all incidents, ranging from daily occurrences to incidents requiring a coordinated federal response.

The EOP is presented in five sections:

  1. The Basic Plan provides a summary/overview of the WSU hazard analysis, mitigation, and capabilities assessment; states the major assumptions made for response planning purposes; and establishes the overall concept of operations, organization and assignment of responsibilities, direction, control and coordination, administration, finance, and logistics, and development and maintenance regarding this EOP.
     
  2. Emergency Support Functions (ESFs) are resources and capabilities grouped into functional areas most frequently needed during a response.  These functions are coordinated by a single lead department but may rely on several departments to provide resources for a given functional area. The mission of an ESF is to provide access to WSU capabilities regardless of which department manages those capabilities.  The ESFs serve as the primary operational-level mechanism to provide assistance in functional areas such as transportation, communications, engineering and physical plant, mass care, student housing, public health, search and rescue, energy, and law enforcement.  One or more ESFs may be activated in response to an emergency.  On the Dayton campus, all ESFs are activated when the EOC is activated. 

    Lake campus will develop expanded ESFs to include relevant support processes and administrative tasks required during an incident.  Those ESFs should align with Mercer County to standardize coordinated efforts when an incident overwhelms Lake campus resources.  In response to an emergency, Lake campus will convene a Crisis Management Team based on predetermined personnel functions.
     
  3. Support Annexes are plans that describe how common support processes and administrative tasks required during an incident are coordinated and executed.  The actions described in the Support Annexes are not limited to particular types of events, but are overarching in nature and applicable to many types of incidents (e.g., Direction and Control, Crisis Communications, Business Continuity, Damage Assessment).  In addition, they may directly support ESFs.  As noted, Lake campus will integrate support processes and tasks into relevant ESFs.
     
  4. Incident Annexes are plans that describe the unique aspects of how WSU will respond to eight broad incident categories (e.g., severe weather, public health emergencies, violence/threat of violence).  Each Incident Annex describes the concept of operations to address specific contingency or hazard situations.
     
  5. Response Partner Guides provide ready references describing key roles and actions for Wright State University response partners.

Purpose

The primary purpose of the EOP is to save lives and property during a major natural, technological, or accidental/intentional human-caused incident.  It is designed to align with local agency procedures.  This EOP assigns functional responsibilities and establishes concepts of operations based on the resources and capabilities of Wright State University, its local jurisdictions, and other external partners that may span an incident from initial notification of an incident through recovery and demobilization.

Implementation of the EOP is in partial fulfillment of Emergency Management Program elements 5 (Resource Management), 6 (Mutual Aid), 7 (Planning), 8 (Direction, Control, and Coordination), 9 (Communications and Warning), 10 (Operations and Procedures), 11 (Logistics and Facilities), 14 (Crisis Communications, Public Education and Information), and 15 (Finance and Administration) as described in Wright Way Policy 1103.

This EOP supersedes the WSU Emergency Response Plan and all previous editions.

Scope

This EOP is applicable to the Dayton and Lake campuses.  Although elements of this plan will be used to address emergency operations at noncontiguous owned facilities, those locations will not be specifically addressed in this document.  As resources and capabilities allow, WSU will provide emergency response and short-term recovery support to the surrounding community.

The EOP is always in effect and elements can be implemented as needed on a flexible, scalable basis to improve any WSU emergency response or recovery effort.  The term “response” as used in this document includes immediate actions to save lives, meet basic human needs, and protect property and the environment.  Response also includes the execution of emergency plans and actions to support short-term recovery.

Emergency plans and procedures are continuous, evolving instruments of anticipated actions that maximize opportunities and guide response operations.  Since planning is an ongoing process, written plans and procedures are interim products based on information and understanding at the moment and are subject to revision.

Situation Overview

Wright State University operates two distinct campuses.  The Dayton campus is located in Fairborn (Greene County) Ohio.  The average student, faculty, staff and visitor population is about 20,000 daily when classes are in session.  About 4,000 students live in campus housing or university managed housing contiguous to the Dayton campus.  Wright State is a nationally accredited state university with 2.7 million gross square feet in 40 buildings on 557 acres (all figures approximate).  Most buildings are interconnected by a pedestrian tunnel system.  The Dayton campus is in close proximity to Wright Patterson Air Force Base and Interstate 675.

The Lake campus of Wright State University is located on State Route 703 in Mercer County, Ohio, between the cities of Celina and St. Marys on the north shore of Grand Lake with 164,000 gross square feet in five buildings on 173 acres.  The average student, faculty, staff and visitor population is about 1,000 daily when classes are in session.  About 30 students live in university managed housing on the campus.

A. Hazard Analysis Summary – Natural

  1. Earthquakes.  The New Madrid fault has the greatest potential for structural damage and is located about 450 miles Southwest of the Dayton campus.  Projected structural damage from a New Madrid fault earthquake having the same magnitudes as those in 1811 and 1812 could result in injuries or deaths and significant damage to the campus infrastructure (buildings, roadways, utilities, telecommunications, etc.).  Collateral losses from shaking would include office and research equipment damage and chemical releases.
  2. Floods.  The Dayton and Lake campuses are located in FEMA Flood Zones that are above the 500-year flood plain and are not typically subject to natural flooding.  However, Lake campus has experienced pluvial flooding when heavy rainfall combined with frozen soil results in ponding water in fields or streets
  3. Hurricanes.  Hurricane-related exposure experience is varied from reduced wind speed and heavy rainfall (as a tropical depression) to severe thunderstorms.
  4. Public Health Emergencies.  Infectious disease outbreaks can occur on the Dayton and Lake campuses.  Localized to widespread illnesses can result.  Common causes of outbreaks can include, but not be limited to, foodborne diseases, waterborne diseases, and influenza.  Toxic algal blooms may affect drinking water and general public health at Lake campus.
  5. Thunderstorms.  Thunderstorms are common to Ohio and can produce the following severe weather conditions:
    • Flash flooding can occur in surrounding areas.  Floods are the number one cause of deaths associated with thunderstorms and are of concern to travelers to and from WSU campuses.
    • Hail falls at speeds faster that 100 miles per hour and can cause considerable property damage.
    • Lightning occurs in all thunderstorms and can result in injuries, fatalities, property damage, and fires.
    • Straight-line winds are responsible for most thunderstorm wind damage that can be equivalent to a strong tornado.
    • Tornados, although associated with severe thunderstorms, can occur any time of the year.  Injuries or deaths and damage to property are possible.
  6. Winter Storms.  Winter storms are common to Ohio that can produce extreme cold temperatures and precipitation resulting in freezing rain, sleet, heavy snow accumulations, blizzard conditions, and wind chill affect.

B. Hazard Analysis Summary – Technological

  1. Aircraft. Wright Patterson Air Force Base flight patterns often traverse the Dayton campus.  An aircraft crash could result in mass casualty and significant and catastrophic damage to the campus property.
  2. Hazardous Materials  – Off-Campus.  The Dayton campus is in close proximity to major interstate and commercial rail traffic increasing the risk of a short-term business interruption to human casualties from a hazardous materials release.
  3. Hazardous Materials – On-Campus.  Various quantities of chemical, radioactive, and biological hazards are used for teaching and research, facilities maintenance, academic support, and general campus operations.  On-campus materials present a risk of a release that could result in a short-term business interruption to human casualties.  Hazardous materials on the Dayton campus also include:
    • Explosive magazines, blasting caps, and explosive chemical compounds.
    • Extreme hazardous substances in small quantities for research purposes.
    • Fuels with bulk storage in underground tanks.
    • Hazardous, radioactive, and infectious waste.
    • Pressurized gases.
  4. Structural Fire.  Conflagrations are a common but serious threat. 
  5. Utility Failure.  The loss of utilities in a building can disrupt day-to-day operations and activities.  A wide spread failure of longer duration can significantly interrupt the WSU mission.

C. Hazard Analysis Summary – Intentional

  1. Civil Disturbance, Violence, and Terrorism.  WSU maintains campuses that are open to the public.  Rioting, civil disorder, protesting, shooting, bomb threat, suspicious package, or other acts of violence are possible threats.

D. Capability Assessment – Initial Response Dayton Campus

  1. Fire and Emergency Medical.  Fairborn Fire Department has adequate resources for attacking an advanced structural fire or responding to a medical emergency without the assistance of mutual aid.  Mutual Aid Agreements are in place that would provide adequate response capabilities for mass casualty and multiple, simultaneous incidents.  Firefighters and Emergency Medical Technicians are provided opportunities to tour campus, particularly high hazard areas.
  2. Hazardous Materials.  Environmental Health and Safety can respond to most small-scale hazardous material releases on campus.  Fairborn Fire Department is equipped to respond to a hazardous materials incident at the Operations level.  The regional hazardous materials response team will respond when requested by the incident commander.  WSU will contract with a private company to cleanup of the material after the release has been stabilized and the incident commander releases the site.
  3. Law Enforcement.  Wright State University Police Department, including an emergency communications center and dispatch, is a full-time, continuous operation that responds to the law enforcement needs of the Dayton campus.  Mutual aid can be requested from surrounding jurisdictions when required.
  4. Public Works and Engineering.  Physical Plant and Engineering personnel respond to energy distribution (natural gas, electric, and oil), water treatment and distribution, building repair and maintenance, and grounds maintenance including snow and debris removal on campus.
  5. Technical Rescue.  Fairborn Fire Department is trained and has the necessary equipment to perform confined space rescue and entrapment rescue. 

E. Capability Assessment – Initial Response Lake Campus

  1. Fire and Emergency Medical.  Celina Fire Department has adequate resources for attacking an advanced structural fire only when on-call, off-duty paid and volunteer Firefighters are utilized.  Celina Fire Department has adequate resources to respond to a medical emergency.  Mutual Aid Agreements are in place that would provide adequate response capabilities for mass casualty and multiple, simultaneous incidents.  Firefighters and Emergency Medical Technicians are provided opportunities to tour campus.
  2. Hazardous Materials.  WSU Lake can respond to most small-scale hazardous material releases in laboratory and maintenance-related work areas.  Celina Fire Department is equipped to respond to a hazardous materials incident at the Technician level.  WSU will contract with a private company to cleanup of the material after the release has been stabilized and the incident commander releases the site.
  3. Law Enforcement.  A WSU Police Officer is on duty during business hours Monday through Friday.  After hours, Mercer County Sheriff's Office and Ohio State Highway Patrol-Wapakoneta Post provide law enforcement services to the Lake Campus.  Mutual aid can be requested from surrounding jurisdictions when required.
  4. Public Works and Engineering.  Physical Plant responds to energy distribution (natural gas, electric, and oil), water treatment and distribution, building repair and maintenance, and grounds maintenance including snow and debris removal on campus.
  5. Technical Rescue.  Celina fire department is trained and has the necessary equipment to perform confined space rescue and entrapment rescue.

F. Prevention/Mitigation Overview

  1. Natural Hazards
    • New construction and renovations comply with current Ohio Fire Code and Ohio Building Code.
    • The tunnel system at the Dayton campus serves as a highly accessible and sufficient tornado shelter.
    • Communicable disease threats are reduced through awareness and inoculation/vaccination programs.
  2. Technological Hazards
    • Utility distribution is primarily underground.
    • Natural Gas is fed via underground lines into targeted buildings.
    • Hazardous materials/wastes are returned, transferred, or disposed to eliminate the threat from those materials on campus.
    • The Chemical Waste Storage Building is a secure facility designed to mitigate occupational and environmental exposure from an uncontrolled release of hazardous waste including building and point source (fume hood) ventilation, floor drains that collect in an underground storage tank, and an explosion-proof electrical system.
    • Campus wide fire detection and protection systems significantly reduce the risk of fatalities and substantial property loss.
  3. Intentional Hazards
    • Intelligence information regarding cyber crimes, gangs, and other criminal trends is shared between the University Police Crime Prevention Unit and local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies.  The Crime Prevention Unit also offers programs addressing personal safety, sexual assault prevention, drug and alcohol prevention, active shooter response, and vehicle safety. University Police operates a 24-hour safety escort program on the Dayton campus.
    • A Bias Incident Response Team responds to reported behaviors or actions directed toward an individual or group that may result in creating a hostile environment and may have a negative psychological, emotional, or physical impact on an individual, group, and/or community.
    • The Crisis Intervention Response Team is a student threat assessment group that meets regularly to review and discuss cases reported through University Police, Judicial Affairs, or other official Student Affairs communications channels.

G. Planning Assumptions

  1. The EOP is based on incidents that are likely to occur.
  2. Most incidents will occur with little or no warning.
  3. Planning activities and incident responses may require the cooperation or coordination of WSU personnel and external agencies/jurisdictions.
  4. Basic lifeline services including electrical power, water, sewer, gas, telecommunications, and transportation may be interrupted.
  5. Emergency communications capabilities among WSU response and support personnel are adequate to provide a coordinated response.
  6. Communications interoperability between WSU and external agencies is minimal and could deter response activities during an incident.
  7. Departments tasked by this EOP will identify personnel and resources and will develop unit-specific procedures to ensure that their roles and responsibilities can be met during an incident.
  8. Emergencies can occur that will exhaust university resources and capabilities.
  9. The University President or designee has the power to make changes to policies and procedures to provide for an effective and efficient response to an emergency.

Concept of Operations

A. Emergency Support Functions, Support Annexes, Incident Annexes, and Response Partner Guides describe the functional processes and administrative requirements necessary to ensure an effective implementation of this EOP.

B. With the exception of the Basic Plan, Dayton and Lake campus EOPs are separate but standardized and coordinated plan documents.

C. When an addition, deletion, or correction is made to the EOP, the Record of Change protocol will be followed.  Changes made to the EOP will be distributed through the Department of Risk Management via an electronic format.

D. Phases of Emergency Management – Emergency management operations are carried out within four distinct phases: prevention/mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.  The scope of this plan includes response and short-term recovery responsibilities for WSU.

  1. Prevention/Mitigation.  Any action taken to eliminate the threat or reduce the degree of long-term risk to life or property from any type of hazard.  Actions include complying with or amending building and zoning codes, hardening facilities and infrastructure, and transfer of risk (e.g., insurance).
  2. Preparedness.  Any action taken in advance of an emergency that eliminates the hazard or threat and facilitates the implementation of a coordinated response.  Actions include emergency operations planning and written plan development, installation and maintenance of notification and communications systems, identifying and assessing hazards, public awareness campaigns, and conducting exercises and drills.
  3. Response.  All actions taken immediately before and after an emergency that saves lives, minimize property damage, and enhances an effective recovery.  Actions include initial notification and response, utilization of Incident Command System, population protection actions, traffic control, and implementing evacuation procedures.
  4. Recovery.  Short-term recovery efforts to return vital systems to minimum operating standards will overlap response actions.  Long-term actions are designed to return WSU to normal or improved conditions.  Actions include damage assessment, debris removal and management, crisis counseling, temporary housing, and reconstruction.

E. WSU has adopted ICS as its emergency response organizational model and supports the employment of ICS concepts and operational constructs through training and exercises.

F. Response priorities during any incident are (in order of significance):

  1. Life safety.
  2. Incident stabilization.
  3. Property conservation.
  4. Environmental protection.

G. Response Actions – Four key actions typically occur in support of a response:

  1. Gain and maintain situational awareness.
  2. Activate and deploy key resources and capabilities
  3. Coordinate response actions effectively.
  4. Demobilize as the situation permits.

H. Incidents that affect WSU will be typed in order to make decisions about resource requirements. Incident types are based on the five levels of complexity adopted by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

  1. Type 5.  The incident can be handled with one or two single resources with up to six personnel.  Command and General Staff positions (other than the Incident Commander) are not activated.  No written Incident Action Plan (IAP) is required.  The incident is contained within the first operational period and often within an hour to a few hours after resources arrive on scene.  Examples include police traffic stop, injured person, small-scale hazardous materials release, or vehicle fire.
  2. Type 4.  Command staff and general staff functions are activated only if needed.  Several resources are required to mitigate the incident.  The incident is usually limited to one operational period following the initial response.  Lake campus may request assistance from the Dayton campus.  The Crisis Management Team (CMT) may be convened or the EOC activated.  The role of the CMT/EOC includes operational plans, objectives, and priorities.  Complexities of the incident should be analyzed and the delegation of authority reviewed and updated as necessary.  No written Incident Action Plan (IAP) is required but a documented operational briefing will be completed for incoming resources.  Examples include hazardous materials release requiring local HazMat Team response, multiple injuries, or small structural fire.
  3. Type 3.  When capabilities exceed an initial response, the appropriate ICS positions should be added to match the complexity of the incident.  Some or all of the Command and General Staff positions may be activated, including Branch Directors, Division/Group Supervisors, and/or Unit Leader level positions.  The incident may extend into multiple operational periods.  A written IAP may be required for each operational period.  Lake campus will likely require assistance from the Dayton campus.  Examples include major structural fire, Regional HazMat Team response, hostage situation, or tornado.
  4. Type 2.  This type of incident extends beyond the capabilities of a local jurisdiction’s control and is expected to go into multiple operational periods.  A Type 2 incident may require the response of resources from out of the area, including regional and/or national resources, to effectively manage ICS staffing.  Most or all of the Command and General Staff positions are filled.  A written IAP is required for each operational period.  Many of the functional ICS units are needed and staffed.  Examples include mass casualties, terrorism, aircraft crash, tornado, or earthquake.
  5. Type 1.  This type of incident is the most complex, requiring national resources to safely and effectively manage and operate.  All Command and General Staff positions are activated.  There is a high impact on the local jurisdiction, requiring additional staff for office administrative and support functions.  A written IAP is required for each operational period.

I. A WSU State of Emergency may be declared (see Support Annex 1, Direction, Control, and Coordination).  Although the circumstances for declaring a WSU State of Emergency are situation dependent, a declaration will be issued by the President or designee given two basic conditions:

  1. Extreme conditions exist or are imminent at or in the vicinity of WSU, caused by a natural disaster, technological emergency, or intentional human-caused incident that poses a threat of serious injury to persons, substantial damage to property, significant disruption to business operations, or a considerable negative impact on the reputation of WSU.
  2. Extraordinary measures are required to protect lives, protect or repair damage to property, or to maintain a safe and orderly operation at WSU.

J. Common emergency powers held by the President, designee, or members of the Emergency Operations Center with delegated authority may be used during a State of Emergency.

K. When the immediate lifesaving activities are complete and the incident has been stabilized, the focus will begin shifting to assisting the general campus population, repair of utilities, roads, and other critical infrastructure, and the implementation of business continuity plans.  Response efforts will likely continue but gradually give way to recovery operations.

  1. Short-term recovery is immediate and overlaps with response.  It includes actions such as providing essential public health and safety services, restoring interrupted utility and other essential services, re-establishing transportation routes, and providing food and shelter for those displaced by the incident.  Although called “short term,” some of these activities may last for weeks.
  2. Long-term recovery may involve some of the same actions and may continue for months or years, depending on the severity and extent of the damage sustained.  Long-term recovery operations are outside the scope of this EOP.

Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities

A. Senior Administration – The President or designee may activate the EOC to provide coordination and support of WSU emergency response and recovery activities.  The President, members of Cabinet (vice presidents) and other key decision-makers will serve as the EOC Policy Group.  Responsibilities include, but are not limited to, approval of temporary changes to business procedures/policy, resolution of conflicting procedures/policies, approval of public information releases, authorization of emergency expenditures, and making changes to the academic calendar.  If the Crisis Management Team is convened on the Dayton campus prior to EOC activation, a representative from senior administration will be included in all team meetings and communications.

B. Lake Campus Administration – The Dean of Lake Campus is the designee to convene a Crisis Management Team, when necessary, and provide coordination and support of emergency response and recovery activities at Lake campus.  Responsibilities include, but are not limited to, approval of temporary changes to Lake campus business procedures, resolution of conflicting Lake campus procedures/policies, approval of public information releases regarding Lake campus, authorization of emergency expenditures, and making changes to the Lake campus academic calendar.

C. Responding Departments – Department Directors/Managers may provide personnel for emergency response and/or recovery work and for temporary assignments as requested through the Incident Commander, Crisis Management Team, or EOC.  Supervisors will ensure that personnel have the logistical and resource support necessary to carry out their assignments.  Certain hazards may require the designation of a lead department for response (e.g., Physical Plant responding to a major utility failure).  In general, a lead department has the expertise and resources to carry out a specific function.  During such emergencies, the lead department may convene a focus team in a Department Operations Center and coordinate with the Crisis Management Team, if convened, or EOC, if activated.  A responding department may also serve as an ESF primary or support department.

D. Local Jurisdiction

  1. Local Fire Department.  Responses to fires, medical emergencies, hazardous material releases, and technical rescues (confined space and entrapment) at the Dayton or Lake campus are from Fairborn or Celina Fire Department, respectively.  If incident command is established prior to the fire department’s arrival, command will transferred to the fire department or a unified command will be established after their arrival.
  2. Law Enforcement Agencies.  University Police must request mutual aid from other law enforcement agencies.
  3. Public Utilities.  Physical Plant will work with the local jurisdictions, utility providers, and contractors regarding critical infrastructure issues.

E. Crisis Management Team – Key decision makers from responding and support departments will be convened to provide direction and control or coordination and support in preparation for and/or management of the incident response and recovery.  On the Dayton campus, if an incident escalates and the EOC is activated, members from the Crisis Management Team will serve as the transition team that provides a situation brief to the EOC.  Members of the Crisis Management Team are often Emergency Support Function Coordinators.

F. Emergency Support Function (ESF) Coordinators – Each ESF has one or more primary departments responsible for coordinating support function actions.  One or more support departments/agencies may be identified to assist with those actions.  The primary departments 1) provide team leadership for the coordination of the ESF functional activities and 2) have the expertise and ability in carrying out a specific function within the operations of an ESF team.  ESF teams are designed to coordinate between the Dayton and Lake campuses if necessary and with local and state ESF counterparts if their response or recovery teams are activated.

G. Emergency Operations Center – The WSU EOC consists of the following functional groups:

  1. Policy Group focuses on the overall strategy for the response (beyond those strategies developed by the Incident Commander at the scene), the overall response priorities, and issues of university policy and procedure.
  2. Operations and Coordination Groups function as a single unit.  Members are generally associated with operations or coordination depending on their support role as dictated by the incident.  The organizational model supports the overall function and management of the EOC.
    • Operations Group provides direct support to the Incident Command staff at the scene or support to and coordination with the county EOC. 
    • Coordination Group collects and analyzes data, provides logistical/resource support, and assists with operational support.
  3. Communications Center is central dispatch for emergency communications on the Dayton campus.  Direct communications with the EOC is through the University Police representative in the Operations Group.

H. External Partners – Government agencies and non-governmental organizations will be considered for a role as a Primary or Support Agency if specific criteria are met.  The external partner must:

  1. Have a unique set of resources, expertise, information, skills or assets that is not available from a local or state agency.
  2. Be a known and accepted provider of a set of resources, expertise, information, skills or assets that is needed/called for at WSU.
  3. Be able to demonstrate/assure that they are capable of fulfilling the assignments of responsibility that are assigned to them.
  4. Have the authority to provide a support function in a WSU EOP-related role.
  5. Possess or have timely access to the resources for providing adequate services at WSU.

Direction, Control and Coordination



A. The Office of the President established a succession of executive authority.  In the event of a vacancy and the President is unable to discharge his duties, the line of succession to the President shall proceed as follows:
  1. President
  2. Provost
  3. Executive Vice President for Planning
  4. Vice President for Finance and Business Affairs
  5. Vice President for Student Affairs

B. The line of succession to the Dean of Lake campus shall proceed as follows (all positions are Lake campus appointments):

  1. Dean
  2. Associate Dean
  3. Student Services Director
  4. Business Manager

C. The Incident Command System (ICS) is a fundamental element of incident management and will be utilized during emergency operations.  ICS is used to organize on-scene operations for a broad spectrum of emergencies from small to complex incidents.  As a system, ICS provides a common organizational structure for incident management while guiding the process for planning, building, and adapting that structure.
 
D. A department response to an anticipated or actual incident is most common.  Departments having staff designated Emergency Responders or Essential Employees will assign personnel to render emergency response and/or recovery services based on their knowledge, skills, and abilities.

E. A Crisis Management Team may be convened to provide direction and control or coordination and support in preparation for and/or management of the incident response and recovery.  If an incident escalates and the EOC is activated, members from the Crisis Management Team will serve as the transition team that provides a situation brief to the EOC.

F. The EOC is a central work location for senior administration and representatives from departments managing university functions critical to an emergency response or recovery effort.  The mission of the EOC is to provide executive decision-making and coordination of departmental and external partner activities in direct support of incident response and recovery operations including other campus services affected by the incident.  When activated, the EOC will serve a critical role in providing support to the on-scene response and recovery activities. 

G. External Government Agencies and Private Sector Organizations will be utilized in response to incidents when WSU capabilities or resources are lacking, exhausted, or overwhelmed.  Local fire departments, law enforcement, public health, American Red Cross, hazardous material cleanup companies, utility companies/contractors, and debris removal contractors are examples of agencies/organizations that may be utilized.

H. An Incident Management Team (IMT) may be enlisted to aid in the management of an incident that has the potential to overwhelm WSU capabilities.  An IMT is a comprehensive resource to either augment ongoing operations through providing infrastructure support or, when requested, transition to an operation that includes all components/functions of ICS Command and General Staff.

Information Collection and Dissemination

A. Information regarding an incident will be collected and disseminated by WSU first responders through the chain of command to senior administration.  If Incident Command has been established, the Public Information Officer will disseminate information to senior administration, to the Crisis Management Team if convened, or to the EOC if activated.

B. Notifications and warnings that alert and inform the WSU community of an anticipated or actual emergency will be disseminated using Wright State Alert!, an emergency notification system with push (e.g., pre-scripted campus wide public address messages, mobile device text messages) and pull (e.g., official emails, WSU homepage override) capabilities.

Emergency Communications

A. University Police utilizes a UHF Trunked radio system with multiple channels for emergency communications.  Other units utilizing the system include, but are not limited to, Environmental Health and Safety, Casualty Prevention, and Residence Services.

B. A VHF repeater system is utilized on campus that will complement the UHF system during an emergency.

C. In the event of a radio communication systems failure, the following backup systems will be used:  telephone, cellular devices (telephone, texting, and data systems), and human runners.  The P&R Communications Service mobile communications trailer may be requested for emergency communications.

Administration, Finance, and Logistics

The general support requirements, availability of services, and the management of resources needed for the EOP are addressed below.  Authority to utilize University resources and acquire the external resources necessary to implement this Plan is granted through the President or designee.
A. Employees involved in implementing the EOP will:

  1. Be oriented to the content and procedures of the plan,
  2. Become familiar with resources they may utilize, and
  3. Will be trained accordingly for tasks they may conduct.

B. Subject Matter Experts or leadership from WSU may be temporarily reassigned to meet the objectives of an Incident Action Plan. 

C. Copies of all purchase and/or service agreement records related to or in implementation of an emergency response or recovery action based on this EOP will be submitted to the Emergency Operations Center, if activated.  Otherwise, standard WSU Business Services procedures will be followed.

D. Operational procedures and related information relative to emergency response and recovery are detailed in this EOP or in departmental procedures not included in this document.

Plan Development and Maintenance

This Plan was developed and is maintained in accordance with Wright Way Policy Number 1103:  Emergency Management.  Development of this document was a collaborative effort with members of the WSU community and, where applicable, external organizations including local jurisdictions, non-profit organization, state and federal agencies, and the private sector.

The Office of Risk Management serves as the clearinghouse for emergency management planning at WSU.  This Plan will be updated and maintained when deficiencies are identified during actual emergency situations, through an exercise and evaluation program, and when changes occur in threat hazards, resources and capabilities, or the organizational structure.  Departments with operational responsibilities will annually re-orient staff to the contents of this Plan.

Authorities and References

A. Federal

  1. The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. Sections 5121, et seq.
  2. Homeland Security Presidential Directive/HSPD-5, Management of Domestic Incidents, 2003.
  3. Homeland Security Presidential Directive/HSPD-8, National Preparedness, 2003.
  4. Action Guide for Emergency Management at Institutions of Higher Learning, U.S. Department of Education, 2009.
  5. OSHA Standard 1910.38, U.S. Department of Labor, Emergency Action Plan, 2002.
  6. NFPA Standard 1600, National Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs, 2010 edition, National Fire Protection Association.
  7. National Response Framework, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2008.
  8. National Incident Management System, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2008.

B. State

  1. Ohio Revised Code, Sections 5502.21 through 5502.5, Department of Public Safety.
  2. Ohio Administrative Code, Section 3701, Department of Health.
  3. Ohio Administrative Code, Section 3750, State Emergency Response Commission.
  4. Ohio Administrative Code, Section 4501, Department of Public Safety.
  5. Ohio Emergency Operations Plan.
  6. Strategic Plan for Higher Education – 2008-2017, Ohio Board of Regents, 2008.

C. Local

  1. Greene County Emergency Operations Plan.
  2. Greene County Mitigation Plan.
  3. Greene County Emergency Management Agency – Data Directory.
  4. Mercer County Emergency Operations Plan.

D. Wright State University

  1. WSU Emergency Response Plan, 2007.
  2. Wright Way Policy 1103, Emergency Management.
  3. Wright Way Policy 6014, Fire Safety Plan.
  4. Wright Way Policy 6031, Emergency Care for Injuries and Illnesses.


E. Other

  1. Emergency Management Glossary of Terms, The George Washington University, Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management, 2007.
  2. Guide to Emergency Management and Related Terms, Definitions, Concepts, Acronyms, Organizations, Programs, Guidance, Executive Orders & Legislation – A Tutorial on Emergency Management, Broadly Defined, Past and Present, B. Wayne Blanchard, 2008.

Appendices

A. Department Matrix for Emergency Support Functions – Dayton Campus (PDF)

B. Aligning Greene County and Dayton Campus ESFs (PDF)

C. Glossary of Emergency Management Terms and Acronyms

Acceptable Risk: That level of risk (likelihood of occurrence and consequence of impact) for any activity or situation that is sufficiently low that society (or an organization that is managing the risk) is comfortable with it.
Act of God: An unintentional hazard event (usually a natural hazard) whereby society feels that no individual or organization is responsible for the hazard occurrence or its impact.
Action plans: Written or verbal plans that reflect:  overall incident goal (control objectives) and incident strategy; objectives for a designated operational period; specific tactical actions and assignments; and supporting information for the designated operational period. An action plan provides direction, coordination across different levels of government and organizations, and a metric for measuring achievement of objectives and overall system performance.
Activate (emergency management definition): To begin the process of mobilizing a response team, or to set in motion an emergency response or recovery plan, process, or procedure for an exercise or for an actual hazard incident.
Activation: An order or recommendation to initiate a pre-developed system (for example, emergency support functions, response teams, emergency operations center). Activation may be partial (stipulating specific components or an indication of the level of commitment to be made) or full (stipulating full activation).  It usually includes actionable information directing the notified entity on initial actions for mobilization, deployment, and/or response.
Advisory: A notification category that provides urgent information about an unusual occurrence or threat of an occurrence, but no activation of the notified entity is ordered or expected at that time. An advisory can be used for notification that something has occurred or is anticipated, and provide actionable information for notified personnel even though the response entity is not being activated. For example, a weather advisory that includes recommended actions for individuals.
After Action Report (AAR): The document that describes the incident response or exercise and findings related to system response performance.  A focused, post-incident or post-exercise review captures objective observations to assess response performance based on existing plans, practices, and procedures fuels the report.
Agency: A division of government with a specific function, or a nongovernmental organization (e.g., private contractor, business, etc.) that offers a particular kind of assistance.
Alert: A notification that provides urgent information and indicates that system action may be necessary. An alert can be used for initial and ongoing notification throughout an incident to convey incident information and directed or recommended actions.
All-hazards: An approach for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, continuity, and recovery that addresses a full range of threats and hazards, including natural, human-caused, and technology-caused.
Antiterrorism: Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals, forces, and property to terrorist acts; Actions designed to prevent attacks on citizens, facilities, and other assets.  Such programs usually involve structural [and other] mitigation measures, such as redesigning to make it easy to maintain surveillance and to limit access to areas where terrorists might try to launch armed attacks or leave bombs.  Antiterrorism is distinguished from counterterrorism, which actively seeks to disrupt terrorist activity.
Area Command (Unified Area Command): An organization established (1) to oversee the management of multiple incidents that are each being handled by an ICS organization or (2) to oversee the management of large or multiple incidents to which several Incident Management Teams have been assigned. Area Command has the responsibility to set overall strategy and priorities, allocate critical resources according to priorities, ensure that incidents are properly managed, and ensure that objectives are met and strategies followed. Area Command becomes Unified Area Command when incidents are multijurisdictional. Area Command may be established at an emergency operations center facility or at some location other than an incident command post.
Artificiality, Exercise: An assumption, accepted for the sake of the exercise, which allows the scenario and participants’ play to evolve so that the exercise objectives can be achieved.  For example, a skip forward in time during the exercise, or an unrealistic hazard effects to stress specific components of a response system could be injected as exercise artifacts.
Assessment: The evaluation and interpretation of measurements and other information to provide a basis for decision-making. A Needs Assessment is a specific form of evaluation that focuses upon program essentials rather than a system performance.
Assignments: Tasks given to resources.  In ICS, assignments are performed within a given operational period and based on operational objectives as defined in the Incident Action Plan.
Assumptions: Statements of conditions accepted as true and that have influence over the development of a system.  (Management) Assumptions provide context, requirements, and situational realities that must be addressed in system planning, development, and system operations.  (Preparedness) Expected operational parameters used as a context, basis, or requirement for response and recovery.  (Response) Operational parameters that must be validated relative to a specific incident.
Authority: The power or right to give orders and/or to make decisions.  That authority may be delegated to another person or entity.
Branch: (ICS) The organizational level having functional or geographical responsibility for major aspects of incident operations. A branch is organizationally situated between the section and the division or group in the Operations Section, and between the section and units in the Logistics Section. Branches are identified by the use of Roman numerals or by functional area.
Business Continuity Planning (BCP): An ongoing process to ensure that the necessary steps are taken to identify the impact of potential losses and maintain viable recovery strategies, recovery plans, and continuity of services.
Business Impact Analysis: (BCP) A management level analysis that identifies the impacts of losing resources.  The analysis measures the effect of resource loss and escalating losses over time in order to provide reliable data to base decisions concerning hazard mitigation, recovery strategies, and continuity planning.
Calamity: A massive or extreme catastrophic disaster that extends over time and space.
Casualty: Any person seeking health or medical services, including mental health services and medical forensics/mortuary care (for fatalities), as a result of a hazard impact.
Catastrophe: An event in which a society experiences such losses to persons and/or property that the entire society is affected and extraordinary resources and skills are required, some of which must come from other nations.
Chain of Command: A series of command, control, executive, or management positions in hierarchical order of authority.
Chief: (ICS) Title for individuals responsible for management of functional sections: Operations, Planning, Logistics, Finance/Administration, and (if established as a separate section) Intelligence.
Civil Disturbance: Group act of violence and disorders prejudicial to public law and order.
Command: The act of directing, ordering, or controlling by virtue of explicit statutory, regulatory, or delegated authority.
Command Post (CP): (ICS) Field location at which the primary tactical-level, on-scene incident command functions are performed.
Command Staff: (ICS) In an incident management organization, the Command Staff consists of the Incident Command and the special staff positions of Public Information Officer, Safety Officer, Liaison Officer, and other positions as required, who report directly to the Incident Commander.
Common Operating Picture: A continuously updated overview of an incident compiled throughout the life cycle of a response allowing incident managers.  An optimal response state where all decision-makers have a common understanding of the incident at all levels to make effective, consistent, and timely decisions.
Communications Unit: (ICS) An organizational unit in the Logistics Section responsible for providing communication services at an incident or an EOC.  A Communications Unit may also be a facility (e.g., a trailer or mobile van) used to support an Incident Communications Center.
Complex: (ICS) A complex is two or more individual incidents located in the same general proximity assigned to a single Incident Commander or Unified Command to facilitate management.  The term “complex” may be used to define a major incident management approach and medical incidents requiring care not readily available.
Comprehensive Emergency Management: A conceptual framework that encompasses all hazards and all levels of government (including the private, non-profit and volunteer sectors).  It views disaster management activities occurring across four phases: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.
Concept of Operations (ConOps): An explanation or list of statements that explain or establish the approach to how a system and its components function through the successive stages of emergency response and recovery.
Consequence: The outcome of an event or situation expressed qualitatively or quantitatively, being a loss, injury, disadvantage or gain; the effects from a hazard impact.
Contamination: The undesirable deposition of a chemical, biological, or radiological material on the surface of structures, areas, objects, or people.
Contingency: A provisional response to a future event that is likely but not certain to happen.  The consequences are such that the likelihood of the occurrence and the projected impact if it occurs must be addressed.  Contingency Planning is the development of provisional responses during the preparedness process for anticipated hazards or during the course of emergency or disaster operations for unexpected incidents/actions.
Continuity of Government: All measures that may be taken to ensure the continuation and stability of essential functions of governments (senior leadership) in the event of emergency conditions including line-of-succession for key decision-makers.
Continuity of Operations (COOP) Program: The collective activities of individual departments and agencies and their sub-components to ensure that their essential functions are performed.  In terms of Federal Preparedness Circular 65, COOP refers primarily to Continuity of Government.  It is differentiated here from Business Continuity Planning, which may be more comprehensive relative to department/unit operations.
Cooperative Assistance: Mutual aid or other assistance during emergencies and disasters that is provided through an arrangement that includes reimbursement of costs to the assisting organization.
Coordination: (EOC, et al) Working to advance a systematic analysis and exchange of information among principals who have or may have a need to know certain information to carry out specific incident management responsibilities.
Credentialing: Providing documentation that can authenticate and verify the certification and identity of designated emergency responders and essential employees that represent various functional disciplines and possess a minimum common level of training and experience.
Crisis Management: The ability to manage incidents that have the potential to cause significant operational, security, financial, or reputational impacts if not handled in an appropriate manner.
Crisis Management Team: Key decision makers from responding and support departments that convene to provide direction and control or coordination and support in preparation for and/or management of an incident response and recovery operation.  If an incident escalates and the EOC is activated, members from the Crisis Management Team will serve as the transition team.
Critical Incident: Any event or situation that threatens people and/or their homes, businesses, or community and requires swift, decisive action.
Critical Operation: A vital action, activity, or system that, if disrupted, incapacitated, or destroyed, would seriously impact WSU’s ability to continue providing essential services.
Cyber Terrorism (cyber crime): The premeditated use of disruptive or destructive activities, or the threat thereof, against computers and/or networks, with the intention to cause harm or further social, ideological, religious, political or similar objectives; the act of intimidating any person in furtherance of such objectives.
Decontamination: The reduction or removal of a chemical, biological, or radiological material from the surface of a structure, area, object, or person.
Damage Assessment: An appraisal or determination of the effects of the disaster on human, physical, operational, economic, and natural resources.  A Preliminary Damage Assessment is an initial, less detailed appraisal used to determine the magnitude and impact of an incident’s damage.
Demobilization: (ICS) Transition of management, operations, and support functions and elements from incident response/recovery activities back to normal operations or to their standby state as operational objectives are met.
Department Operations Center (DOC): Units that focus on incident management activities.  A DOC is typically linked to and, in most cases, physically represented in the EOC.
Disaster: A suddenly occurring or developing, unstoppable incident that results in a hazard impact causing adverse physical, social, psychological, economic or political effects that challenges the ability to rapidly & effectively respond.
Dispatch: The ordered movement of a resource or resources to an assigned operational mission or an administrative move from one location to another; A term commonly used to reference the WSU Police Department’s Communication Center.
Division: (ICS) The partition of an incident into geographical areas of operation. Divisions are established when the number of resources exceeds the manageable span of control of the Operations Chief.  A division is located within the ICS organization between the branch and resources in the Operations Section.
Drill: A training application that develops a combination or series of skills.
Emergency: Any occasion or instance of natural or human-caused incident that a) warrants action to save lives and to protect property, public health, and safety, b) causes adverse physical, social, psychological, economic or political effects, c) and challenges the ability to rapidly & effectively respond.  An emergency requires a stepped up capacity and capability in the response and recovery phases and may require a change from routine management methods to an incident command structure.
Emergency Communications: The flow of information and associated equipment that is directly related to and supports the reporting, intelligence and information gathering, and direction and control of an incident response and recovery effort.  Emergency communications can include, but not be limited to, the 911 emergency telephone number, dedicated radio service utilized by response personnel, multi-agency radio communications system (MARCS), standard modes of communication, and verbal and written messages.
Emergency Management: The science of managing complex systems and multidisciplinary personnel to address an ongoing process to prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to, maintain continuity during, and recover from an incident that threatens life, property, operations, or the environment.
Emergency Management Program Committee (EMPC): A committee established by an organization that has advises on emergency program matters.
Emergency Manager: (WSU) A working title of the person who has the day-to-day responsibility for emergency management programs and activities.  The role is one of coordinating all aspects of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery capabilities.
Emergency Notification System (ENS): A combination of communication modes and methods used to alert and inform people of an anticipated or actual emergency. Wright State’s Emergency Notification System is branded Wright State Alert!.
Emergency Operations Center (EOC): The physical location (when activated) where the coordination of information and resources to support incident management activities normally take place.
Emergency Operations Plan (EOP): An all-hazards document that: defines the scope of preparedness activity; identifies authorities, relationships, and basic actions to be taken in response to an anticipated or actual incident that may exceed the day-to-day response capability; and is flexible enough for use in all emergencies.
Emergency Preparedness: Activities and measures designed or undertaken to: be ready for or minimize the effects of a hazard; deal with the immediate emergency conditions which would be created by the hazard; and make emergency repairs to or restoration of vital utilities and facilities destroyed or damaged by the hazard.
Emergency Public Information: Information that is disseminated primarily in anticipation of an emergency or during an emergency. In addition to providing situational information to the public, it also frequently provides directive actions required to be taken by the general public.
Emergency Support Function (ESF): A grouping of department, local agency, private-sector capabilities into an organizational structure to provide support, resources, and services.
Essential Employee: (WSU) One who has been designated as critical to the operation of the unit, whose skill or expertise is necessary to the success of that operation, particularly during an emergency, and whose absence from duty could endanger the safety and well-being of the campus population and/or infrastructure.
Evacuation: Organized, phased, and supervised withdrawal, dispersal, or removal of civilians from dangerous or potentially dangerous areas to include their reception and care in safe areas.
Evaluator: Personnel assigned to make objective observations, using supplied exercise evaluation guidance that will provide a uniform basis for system evaluation from the exercise experience
Exercise: A scripted, scenario-based activity designed to evaluate the system’s capabilities and capacity to achieve overall and individual functional objectives, and to demonstrate the competencies for relevant response and recovery positions. The purpose of exercise evaluation is to determine a valid indication of future system performance under similar conditions, and to identify potential system improvements.
Finance/Administration: (ICS) Functional area that addresses the financial, administrative, and legal/regulatory issues; monitors costs related to the incident; and provides accounting, procurement, time recording, cost analyses, and overall fiscal guidance.
General Staff: (ICS) A group of incident management personnel organized according to function and reporting to the Incident Commander.  The General Staff normally consists of the Operations Section Chief, Planning Section Chief, Logistics Section Chief, and Finance/Administration Section Chief.
Hazard: A potential or actual force, physical condition, or agent with the ability to cause human injury, illness and/or death, and significant damage to property, the environment, critical infrastructure, agriculture and business operations, and other types of harm or loss; Something that is potentially dangerous or harmful, often the root cause of an unwanted outcome.
Hazard Identification: The process of identifying, recognizing, and defining the characteristics of factors and conditions that potentially threaten WSU.
Hazard Mitigation: Measures taken in advance of a disaster aimed at decreasing or eliminating impact of the disaster on society and environment.
Hazard Vulnerability Analysis: A systematic approach to assessing the risk (probability of hazard occurrence and the consequence) associated with each hazard and analyzing the findings to create a prioritized comparison of hazard vulnerabilities.  The consequence (vulnerability to the location or entity) is relative to the impact on organizational function as well as the likely service demands created by the impact of the hazard.
Hazardous Material (HAZMAT): Any explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, reactive, or radioactive material (or any combination) that requires special care in handling because of the hazards posed to public health, safety, and the environment.
HAZMAT Team: Term used to describe a team of highly skilled professionals who specialize in dealing with hazardous material incidents.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): Public Law 104-191 (August 21, 1996) addresses many aspects of healthcare practice and medical records.  This federal act most notably addresses the privacy of personal health information, and directs the development of specific parameters as to how personal health information may be shared.
Homeland Security: A concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur.
Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP): Doctrine and policy provided by the US Department of Homeland Security for exercise design, development, conduct and evaluation.  The terminology and descriptions related to exercise in this document is a homeland security industry application of emergency management concepts and principles.
Hotwash: (HSEEP) An exercise performance review that occurs in close proximity to the end of an incident response or exercise and is generally less formal or detailed than the After-Action Review.
Incident: (ICS) An occurrence, either natural or human borne that requires action by emergency service personnel to prevent or minimize loss of life or damage to property and/or natural resources.
Incident Action Plan (IAP): (ICS) An oral or written plan containing general objectives reflecting the overall strategy for managing an incident. It may include the identification of operational resources and assignments as well as attachments that provide direction and important information for management of the incident during one or more operational periods.
Incident Command System (ICS): A standardized on-scene emergency management approach that adopts an integrated organizational structure constructed to reflect the complexity and demands of single or multiple incidents without being hindered by departmental or jurisdictional boundaries.  The system is the combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure.  It is applicable to small as well as large and complex incidents.
Incident Commander (IC): The individual responsible for all incident activities, including the development of strategies and tactics and the ordering and the release of resources.  The IC has overall authority and responsibility for conducting and managing incident operations at the incident site.
Incident Objectives: Statements of guidance and direction necessary for selecting strategies and the tactical direction of resources based on realistic expectations of what can be accomplished.
Information Management: The processes of the collection, analysis, formatting and transmission of data and information during an incident.
Initial Action: The actions taken by those responders first to arrive at an incident site.
Intrastate Mutual Aid Compact (Ohio): Within the context of Ohio Revised Code (3345.042 and 5502.41), WSU is considered a participating political subdivision.  The compact: 1) provides for mutual assistance or aid among the participating political subdivisions for purposes of preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an incident, disaster, exercise, training activity, planned event, or emergency, any of which requires additional resources; and 2) establishes a method by which participants may seek assistance or aid that resolves many of the common issues facing political subdivisions before, during, and after an incident, disaster, exercise, training activity, planned event, or emergency, any of which requires additional resources, and that ensures, to the extent possible, eligibility for available state and federal disaster assistance or other funding.  The law also requires that each program for emergency management within a political subdivision, in coordination with all departments, divisions, boards, commissions, agencies, and other instrumentalities within that political subdivision shall establish procedures or plans that, to the extent possible: 1) identify hazards that potentially could affect the participating political subdivision and 2) identify and inventory the current services, equipment, supplies, personnel, and other resources related to the preparedness, response, and recovery activities of the participating political subdivision.
Joint Information Center (JIC): A facility established to coordinate all incident-related public information activities. It is the central point of contact for all news media at the scene of the incident. Public information officials from all participating agencies should co-locate at the JIC.
Joint Information System (JIS): Integrates incident information and public affairs into a cohesive organization designed to provide consistent, coordinated, timely information during crisis or incident operations.
Liaison Officer: (ICS) A member of the Command Staff responsible for coordinating with representatives from cooperating and assisting agencies.
Life Safety: In emergency response, this indicates safety issues that are important in preventing injury or death for exposed responders or victims during an incident.
Logistics: Providing resources and other services to support incident management.  (ICS) The Logistics Section is responsible for providing facilities, services, and material support for the incident.
Major Disaster: As defined under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5122), a major disaster is any natural catastrophe or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion, in any part of the United States, which in the determination of the President causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant assistance under the Act to supplement the efforts and available resources of States, tribes, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby.
Mass casualty incident: A casualty-creating hazard incident in which the available organizational and medical resources or their management systems are severely challenged or become insufficient to adequately meet the medical needs of the affected population.
Mission critical systems: The combination of personnel, facilities, equipment, supplies and operating systems vital for WSU to accomplish its mission.
Mitigation: Activities that reduce or eliminate the probability of a hazard occurrence or eliminate or reduce the impact from the hazard if it should occur.
Mobilization: Activities and procedures carried out that ready an asset to perform incident operations.
Moulage: Cosmetic makeup and other effects to simulate appropriate injury and illness in victim “actors” during exercises and training.
Multijurisdictional Incident: An incident requiring action from multiple agencies that each have jurisdiction to manage certain aspects of an incident.  In ICS, these incidents will be managed under Unified Command.
Mutual Aid: Voluntary aid and assistance by the provision of services and facilities including but not limited to: fire, police, medical and health, communications, transportation, and utilities.  Mutual aid is intended to provide adequate resources, facilities, and other support to jurisdictions whenever their own resources prove to be inadequate to cope with a given situation.  Typically, a Mutual Aid Agreement establishing the terms of the agreement is developed and ratified between two or more entities.
National Incident Management System (NIMS): A system mandated by Presidential declaration that provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, local, and tribal governments; the private-sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity.
National Response Framework (NRF): A guide to how the Nation conducts all-hazards response.  It is built upon scalable, flexible, and adaptable coordinating structures to align key roles and responsibilities across the Nation.  It describes specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents that range from the serious but purely local, to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters.
National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disasters (NVOAD): An umbrella organization of established and experienced voluntary organizations that serve disaster-affected communities.
Natural Hazard: Any hazard produced primarily by forces of nature that result in human or property impact of sufficient severity to be deemed an emergency.
Notification: Information distributed to relevant personnel that contains important information regarding an actual or potential hazard impact and the response status of the organization.
Operational period: A designated time interval during incident operations where organizational strategies and tactics are guided by response objectives.
Operations Section: (ICS) The section responsible for all tactical incident operations.
Planning Section: (ICS) Responsible for the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of operational information related to the incident, and for the preparation and documentation of the Incident Action Plan. This section also maintains information on the current and forecasted situation and on the status of resources assigned to the incident.
Player: Personnel who are participating in the exercise in the roles they may fill during an actual emergency.
Preparedness: The phase of Comprehensive Emergency Management that encompasses actions designed to build organizational resiliency and/or organizational capacity and capabilities for response to and recovery from disasters and emergencies.
Prevention: Actions to avoid an incident or to intervene to stop an incident from occurring.
Private SectorPri: Parts of the economy controlled by individuals, voluntary organizations or private companies.  Compare to the Public Sector defined as organizations and entities that are part of any governmental structure.
Program Coordinator: The individual who has been specifically charged with the development and coordination of the Emergency Management Program (EMP) and serves as the chair of the EMP
Public health emergency: An occurrence or imminent threat of an illness or health condition that poses a high probability of death, Serious or long-term disability, or widespread exposure to infectious or toxic agent posing significant risk of substantial future harm in a large number of the affected population.
Public Information Officer:  (ICS) A member of the Command Staff responsible for interfacing with the public, the media and with other agencies regarding incident-related news and information.
Public Sector: The organizations and entities that are part of any governmental structure. Compare to the Private Sector defined as parts of the economy controlled by individuals, voluntary organizations or private companies.
Radiological Emergency: A radiological incident that poses an actual, potential, or perceived hazard to public health or safety or loss of property.
Reception Area: This refers to a location separate from staging areas, where resources report in for processing and out-processing. Reception Areas provide accountability, security, situational awareness briefings, safety awareness, distribution of IAPs, supplies and equipment, feeding, and bed down.
Recovery: The phase of Comprehensive Emergency Management that encompasses activities and programs implemented during and after response that are designed to return the entity to its usual state or to a “new normal.” For response organizations, this includes return-to-readiness activities.
Resilience: The capacity to recover successfully from loss and damage.
Resource: Personnel and major items of equipment, supplies, and facilities available or potentially available for assignment to incident operations and for which status is maintained.
Resource Management: A system for identifying available resources to enable timely and unimpeded access to assets needed to prepare for, respond to, or recover from an incident.  Resource management involves four primary tasks: establishing systems for describing, inventorying, requesting, and tracking resources; activating these systems prior to and during an incident; dispatching resources prior to and during an incident; and deactivating or recalling resources during or after incidents.
Resource Typing: A classification of resources whether human or otherwise.  (ICS) a resource type refers to a designated resource’s capability, where Type 1 is most capable and Type 4 is minimal.
Response: The phase of Comprehensive Emergency Management that addresses activities before (for an impending threat), during, and after a hazard impact to address the immediate and short-term effects of the disaster or emergency.
Risk: The expectation of loss from hazards and their impact. Risk is a function of probability (likelihood) of a hazard occurrence and the impact (consequences) of a hazard on the target of the risk assessment. It connotes a relationship between the hazard and the target’s vulnerability to the hazard. Risk can be addressed by managing probability (through mitigation) and/or managing impact (through mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery).
Risk Analysis: A detailed examination performed to understand the nature of unwanted, negative consequences to human life, health, property, or the environment; the process of quantification of the probabilities and expected consequences for identified risks.
Risk Assessment: The process, including both risk analysis and risk management alternatives, of establishing information regarding an acceptable level of that risk for an individual, group, society, or the environment.
Safety Officer (SO): (ICS) A member of the Command Staff responsible for monitoring and assessing safety hazards or unsafe situations and for developing measures for ensuring personnel safety.
Situation report (SITREP): A response or recovery assessment and progress update.
Span of Control: The number of individuals supervised.  (NIMS) An appropriate span of control is between 1:3 and 1:7.).
Stafford Act: The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Public Law 93-288, as amended, provides an orderly and continuing means of assistance by the Federal Government to State and local governments in carrying out their responsibilities to alleviate the suffering and damage which result from disaster.
Staging Area: Location established where resources can be stored or parked while awaiting a tactical assignment.
Stakeholder: key people, groups of people, or institutions that may significantly influence the success of the process, plan, program or project.
Strike Team: (ICS) A set number of resources of the same kind and type that have an established minimum number of personnel.
Task Force: Any combination of resources assembled to support a specific mission or operational need. All resource elements within a Task Force must have common communications and a designated leader.
Technological Hazard: A hazard created primarily by technology or unplanned and non-malicious actions, which result in human or property impact of sufficient severity to be deemed an emergency.
Terrorism: (FBI) The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.  Domestic terrorism involves groups or individuals who are based and operate entirely within the United States and U.S. territories without foreign direction and whose acts are directed at elements of the U.S. government or population.
Threat: An indication of possible violence, harm, or danger.
Unified Command: (ICS) A structure where more than one agency with incident jurisdiction or when incidents cross political jurisdictions work together through the designated members to establish a common set of objectives and strategies and a single Incident Action Plan.
Unit: (ICS) The organizational element having functional responsibility for a specific incident planning, logistics, or finance/administration activity.
Unity of Command: The concept by which each person within an organization reports to one and only one designated person. The purpose of unity of command is to ensure unity of effort under one responsible commander for every objective.
Volunteers: Persons agreeing to provide a service outside the scope of their employment and without additional or specific compensation.  Spontaneous volunteers are people who report to help at the disaster scene that were neither recruited nor affiliated with an organization.
Vulnerability: The likelihood of an organization being affected by a hazard, and its susceptibility to the impact and consequences of the hazard.
Vulnerability Analysis: The process of estimating the exposure to potential disaster hazards of specified elements at risk.
Vulnerability Assessment: A vulnerability assessment presents the extent of injury and damage that may result from a hazard event of a given intensity in a given area.
Warning: A notification signaling an imminent hazard.
Watch: A notification issued by the National Weather Service informing the public that conditions are right for a potential disaster to occur.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): Generally refers to chemical, nuclear, biological agents or explosive devices that could be deployed against civilian populations (differentiates from military use).
WSU State of Emergency: A situation dependent declaration issued by the WSU President or designee given two basic conditions:  1) extreme conditions exist or are imminent at or in the vicinity of WSU, caused by a natural disaster, technological emergency, or intentional human-caused incident that poses a threat of serious injury to persons, substantial damage to property, significant disruption to business operations, or a considerable negative impact on the reputation of WSU, and 2) extraordinary measures are required to protect lives, protect or repair damage to property, or to maintain a safe and orderly operation at WSU.

Glossary of Acronyms

AAR  After Action Report
BCP  Business Continuity Program
BIA  Business Impact Analysis
CD  Civil Defense
CMT  Crisis Management Team
ComMark Communications and Marketing
ConOps Concept of Operations
COOP  Continuity of Operations Planning
CP  Command Post
DOC  Department Operations Center
EM  Emergency Management
EMAC  Emergency Management Assistance Compact
EMPC  Emergency Management Program Committee
EMP  Emergency Management Program
EMS  Emergency Medical Services
ENS Emergency Notification System
EOC  Emergency Operations Center
EOP  Emergency Operations Plan
ESF  Emergency Support Function
FBI  Federal Bureau Investigation
FEMA  Federal Emergency Management Agency
GCCHD Greene County Combined Health District
GCEMA Greene County Emergency Management Agency
HAZMAT  Hazardous Materials
HIPAA  Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
HSEEP  Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program
HSPD  Homeland Security Presidential Directive
IAP  Incident Action Plan
IC  Incident Commander
ICP Incident Command Post
ICS  Incident Command System
IMAC  Intrastate Mutual Aid Compact
IMT  Incident Management Team
JIC  Joint Information Center
JIS  Joint Information System
MARCS  Multi-Agency Radio Communications System
NVOAD  National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disasters
NGO  Nongovernmental Organization
NIMS  National Incident Management System
NRF  National Response Framework
NVOAD  National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disasters
OAC Ohio Administrative Code
OEMA Ohio Emergency Management Agency
ORC Ohio Revised Code
OSHA  Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PIO  Public Information Officer
PNP  Private Non-Profit
PPE  Personal Protective Equipment
RF  Radio Frequency
SITREP  Situation Report
SO  Safety Officer
SOP  Standard Operating Procedure
TCL  Target Capabilities List
UC  Unified Command
USAR  Urban Search and Rescue
USC  United States Code
WMD  Weapons of Mass Destruction