Biological Safety

Overview

In October 1994, Wright State University reconstituted the Institutional Biosafety Committee and appointed an Institutional Biological Safety Officer. The charge of the committee is to provide oversight on the use of recombinant DNA (rDNA), infectious biologicals and biological toxins.

The Department of Environmental Health & Safety provides assistance to the Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) and The Office of Research and Sponsored Programs.

Contact EHS for additional information about Biological Safety Cabinet Training.

Work Instructions and Standard Operating Instructions (SOPs)

Emergency Procedure: Cleaning Up a Spill in a Biosafety Cabinet

Purpose

The purpose of this work instruction (WI) is to establish emergency procedures for biohazard spills involving biohazards such as human blood, other potential infectious materials (e.g., human body fluids), microorganisms, genetically modified microorganisms, and recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecules

As a result, Wright State

  • decreases the threat of exposure to contaminants and disease and to safeguard the workplace and
  • assures compliance with medical waste disposal regulations and to minimize the risk of fines and penalties.

Scope

This WI provides instruction to trained personnel to clean up biohazard spills that occur inside a biosafety cabinet (BSC) at Wright State University’s facilities.  Locations that are not owned by Wright State are not included in this procedure.  The types of biohazard spills that are included in the WI include:

  • Blood or body fluids in a clinical setting
  • Large spills of cultured or concentrated agents

This WI does not apply to:

  • personnel who have not been trained,
  • spill clean-up procedures for non-laboratory areas.  Please refer to the Wright State Exposure Control Plan for Bloodborne Pathogens or
  • highest Risk Biological Spills (i.e., BSL3 Laboratories)

If any process described in this document conflicts with any part of OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogen Program, Ohio’s Public Employee Risk Reduction Program, Federal or Ohio EPA’s Infectious Waste Regulations, or Wright State Wright Way Policies this document shall be superseded by any of the former.

Definitions

  • Biohazard: Biohazard means those infectious agents presenting a risk of death, injury or illness to humans.
  • Biosafety Cabinet (BSC): Biosafety cabinets (BSCs) are hoods with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that provide personnel, environmental and product protection when appropriate practices and procedures are followed
  • Bloodborne Pathogens: Bloodborne pathogens means pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood that can cause disease in humans.  These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Disinfectant: Disinfectant means a product that is capable of killing or inactivatng all microorganisms, except for some spore forms, on inanimate objects
  • Infectious Waste: Infectious Waste means any wastes or combination of wastes that include cultures and stocks of infectious agents and associated biological, human blood and blood products, and substances that were or are likely to have been exposed to or contaminated with or are likely to transmit an infectious agent or zoonotic agent, including the following:
    • laboratory wastes;
    • pathological wastes,
    • animal blood and blood products;
    • animal carcasses and parts;
    • waste materials from the rooms of humans, or the enclosures of animals, that have been isolated because of a diagnosed communicable disease;
    • sharp wastes used in the treatment of human beings or animals, or sharp wastes that have or are likely to have come in contact with infectious agents;
    • waste materials generated in the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals, or in the production or testing of biological, that the public health council identifies as infectious wastes;
    • “blood products” does not include patient care waste such as bandages or disposable gowns that are lightly soiled with blood; or
    • any other waste materials that wright state designates as infectious wastes.
  • Regulated Waste: Regulated Waste means any of the following:
    • liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials;
    • contaminated items that would release blood or other potentially infectious materials in a liquid or semi-liquid state if compressed;
    • items that are caked with dried blood or other potentially infectious materials and are capable of releasing these materials during handling; contaminated sharps; and
    • pathological and microbiological wastes containing blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM).

      Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) regulations govern the disposal of regulated waste which is called infectious waste by OEPA.
  • Sharp Objects or “Sharp(s)”: Sharp objects mean any object that has the potential to puncture or lacerate, including but not limited to nails, sewing needles, straight pins, staples, metal screws, hard plastic, glass, broken ceramics, and infectious waste "sharps."

Acronyms

  • BSC: Biosafety Cabinet
  • BSL: Biosafety Level
  • EHS: Environmental Health and Safety
  • EHSMS: Environmental Health and Safety Management System
  • EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
  • HBV: Hepatitis B Virus
  • HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • OEPA: Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
  • OPIM: Other Potentially Infectious Material
  • OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration
  • SWIM: Stop, Warn, Isolate, Minimize
  • WI: Work Instruction

Process Flow Diagram

Flow Chart for Spill in a Biosafety Cabinet (PDF)

The following diagram depicts processes described in this document, and the responsibilities and actions that shall be performed by process participants. Any information supplemental to the depicted process will appear after the diagram.

Remember SWIMS:

  • S  Stop and Think, Stop Working, Stop the Spill
  • W  Warn Others
  • I  Isolate the Area
  • M  Minimize Exposure
  • S  Stay in the Area until Help Arrives

[excerpt="Spill in BSC"]

  1. Secure the area and notify the area supervisor.  Limit access to authorized trained personnel.
  2. Promptly remove any contaminated garments
  3. Allow BSC to run during cleanup.
  4. Wait at least twenty (20) minutes to allow the BSC to contain aerosols.
  5. Wear knee-length, fully-buttoned laboratory coat, ANSI-approved safety glasses and disposable gloves during cleanup.
  6. Apply disinfectant (e.g., 10% bleach) concentrically beginning at the outer margin of the spill area, working toward the center.
  7. Allow a minimum of 20 minutes contact time.
  8. Wipe up spillage with disposable disinfectant-soaked paper towels. Do not place your head in the cabinet to clean the spill; keep your face behind the viewscreen.
  9. If broken glass or other sharps objects are involved, use a dustpan, forceps, or a piece of cardboard to collect the material and deposit it into a puncture-resistant container for disposal.
  10. Wipe the walls, work surfaces, and any equipment in the cabinet with disinfectant-soaked paper towels.
  11. Discard contaminated disposable materials using appropriate biohazardous waste disposal procedures.
  12. Place contaminated reusable items in biohazard bags or autoclavable pans with lids before autoclaving.
  13. Expose non-autoclavable materials to disinfectant (20 minutes contact time) before removal from the BSC.
  14. Remove protective clothing used during cleanup and place in a biohazard bag for removal
  15. Run BSC 20 minutes after cleanup before resuming work or turning BSC off.
  16. If the spill overflows the drain pan/catch basin under the work surface into the interior of the BSC (Avoid generating aerosols):
  17. Close the drain valve.
  18. Flood the drain pan with disinfectant.
  19. Empty the drain pan into a container with disinfectant
  20. Notify EHS. A more extensive decontamination of the BSC may be required.
  21. Report incident to lab supervisor.
  22. Contact EHS to report spill
  23. Complete Incident Form.

[/excerpt]

Reference

World Heath Organization Biosafety Manual, 3rd Edition

Packaging Infectious Waste

Purpose

The infectious waste generator is responsible for preparing the infectious, red bag waste for pickup. This is called “packaging” infectious waste. Proper packaging starts with ensuring appropriate setup, suitable types of red bags, and acceptable disposal of items in the red bag.
The purpose of this work instruction (WI) is to establish a consistent method for packaging infectious waste.  As a result, Wright State

  • decreases the threat of exposure to contaminants and disease and to safeguard the workplace and
  • assures compliance with medical waste disposal regulations and to minimize the risk of fines and penalties.

Scope

This WI applies to infectious waste generated at Wright State University.  The WI is provided to Wright State infectious waste generators to handle, secure, label, and prepare the infectious waste for disposal.
A variety of biohazards are produced through patient care or from laboratories or companies that do research, diagnostics, or drug development.
The federal government regulates proper tracking and disposal of 6 types of medical waste:

  • Human blood and blood products
  • Used sharps (e.g., syringes, needles, and surgical blades)
  • Cultures and stocks of infectious agents and associated biologicals
  • Pathological waste
  • Contaminated animal carcasses
  • Potentially infectious waste

If any process described in this document conflicts with any part of OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogen Program, Ohio’s Public Employee Risk Reduction Program, Federal or Ohio EPA’s Infectious Waste Regulations, or Wright State Wright Way Policies this document shall be superseded by any of the former.

Definitions

  • Infectious Waste: Infectious Waste means any wastes or combination of wastes that include cultures and stocks of infectious agents and associated biological, human blood and blood products, and substances that were or are likely to have been exposed to or contaminated with or are likely to transmit an infectious agent or zoonotic agent, including the following:
    • Laboratory wastes
    • Pathological wastes
    • Animal blood and blood products
    • Animal carcasses and parts
    • Waste materials from the rooms of humans, or the enclosures of animals, that have been isolated because of a diagnosed communicable disease
    • Sharp wastes used int the treatment of human beings or animals, or sharp wastes that have or are likely to have come in contact with infectious agents
    • Waste materials generated in the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals, or in the production or testing of biological, that the public health council identifies as infectious wastes
    • “Blood products” does not include patient care waste such as bandages or disposable gowns that are lightly soiled with blood
    • Any other waste materials that Wright State designates as infectious wastes.
  • Infectious Waste Generator: An infectious waste generator is any Wright State employee, student, visitor or volunteer that generates, makes, or handles infectious waste for packaging or disposal.
  • Regulated Waste: Regulated Waste means liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials; contaminated items that would release blood or other potentially infectious materials in a liquid or semi-liquid state if compressed; items that are caked with dried blood or other potentially infectious materials and are capable of releasing these materials during handling; contaminated sharps; and pathological and microbiological wastes containing blood or other potentially infectious materials. Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) regulations govern the disposal of regulated waste which is called infectious waste by OEPA.

Acronyms

  • EHS: Environmental Health and Safety
  • EHSMS: Environmental Health and Safety Management System
  • EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
  • OPIM: Other Potentially Infectious Material
  • WI: Work Instruction

Process Flow Diagram

The following diagram depicts processes described in this document, and the responsibilities and actions that shall be performed by process participants.  Any information supplemental to the depicted process will appear after the diagram.

Wright State contracts with Stericycle for infectious or regulated waste disposal.  The following steps meet Stericycle, federal, state, local and institutional requirements.

Infectious Waste Flow Chart (PDF)

Contact EHS for infectious waste container.

EHS provides two (2) sizes of Stericycle infectious waste corrugated boxes with red bag liners.

  • Small (40-pound) box
  • Large (50-pound) box

Contact EHS:

Provide the following information:

  • Date
  • Contact Information
  • Name
  • Email
  • Phone number
  • Campus, building, and room
  • Container Information
  • Number of container(s)
  • Size of container(s)
  • Location of container(s)
  • Infectious Waste Container Needs
  • Quantity needed
  • Size (small or large)

Set up the infectious waste container.

For the Stericycle corrugated boxes provided by EHS, be sure to turn over and seal the bottom flaps with 2-inch wide, clear, packing tape.

The top and bottom are distinguished by the printed arrows and text on the box.

Line your container with the red bag prior to use.

Use a red Stericycle biohazard bag to line the inside of the container with the 4 sides overlapping the container’s outer sides.  No waste materials should protrude outside the plane of the box.

Dispose of only biohazardous waste in red bag.

Segregate and properly manage infectious wastes.

Generally, these materials DO go into a Stericycle red bag:

  • Visibly bloody gloves, plastic tubing, or personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Gauze, bandages or other items saturated with blood or OPIM
  • Securely closed disposable sharps containers
  • Human or animal specimen cultures, cultures and wastes from infectious agents.

Special handling, marking and local regulations may apply to these:

  • Certain pathological waste
  • Trace chemotherapy

These DON’T go in the Stericycle red bag:

  • Medications
  • Liquids
  • Semi-liquid materials

DON’T discard these in the red bag:

  • Compressed gas cylinders (they’re hazardous waste, not biohazards)
  • Loose sharps (they go in sharps containers)
  • Hazardous and chemical waste
  • Radioactive waste
  • Fixatives and preservatives
  • Biotech or food processing waste that does not contain a potentially infectious agent
  • Household waste, food, paper products, and other medical solid waste (unless potentially infectious)

Gather, twist, and tie the red bag when the container is full.

While wearing gloves, lab coat, and ANSI-approved eyewear, gather the 4 edges of the red bag from the sides of the container.  Twist the top of the bag to seal its contents.  Secure the seal with a strong, hand-tied single or gooseneck knot to prevent any leakage if inverted.  You can also use a zip tie or tape to secure the knot.  Ensure that the bag is completely closed.

Secure the lid on the container.

Make sure all closure and/or locking mechanisms are engaged. Red bags must not be visible once the container is closed.

Check the containers markings.

Ensure that federal markings (biohazard symbol, this-side-up-arrows, regulated medical waste, N.O.S., and UN number) are present.

Improperly packaged containers or damaged containers will be denied pickup or returned to the customer.

Federal markings are shown in the picture of the box on this page.

Always follow Wright State policies and comply with local, state, and federal laws for medical waste disposal.

Check the container for leaks.

Leaking containers must be placed in a secondary container.

Contact EHS immediately or as soon as feasible for assistance.

Request pickup.

Contact EHS for pickup.  Expect removal within 72-hours.

Provide the following information:

  • Date
  • Contact Information
  • Name
  • Email
  • Phone number
  • Campus, building, and room
  • Container Information
  • Number of container(s)
  • Size of container(s)
  • Location of container(s)
  • Replacement Needs
  • Quantity needed
  • Size (small or large)

 

Training

Training

Audience:  Persons whose tasks include the handling or exposure to biohazardous material.

Frequency:  Initial, at time of job or task assignment.

Topics Include:  Basics of biosafety, biohazard risk assessment, risk management, engineering controls, SOPs, PPE, and emergecy responses.

Training Format:  Classroom

Contact:  Marjorie Markopoulos

Biosafety Training Outline

Biosafety Training Outline

  1. Biohazard definition
  2. Risk assessments
  3. Laboratory Containment Levels
    1. Determination Critera
      1. Hazard levels
      2. Microbiological practices
      3. Special practices
      4. Containment equipment
    2. Goal:  highest protection and lowest possible exposure
  4. Risk Group
  5. Containment requirements
  6. LAI
    1. Bacteria
    2. Viral
  7. Infectious Waste Management
    1. Biohazardous Waste Categories
    2. Disposal practices
    3. Daily bleach solution preparation requirement
    4. Sharps
      1. Classification
      2. Handling
  8. Spill Management
  9. Transportation and Transferring Biological Agents
  10. Laundry Facilities  (1981)

Training Resources

Pathogen Safety Data Sheets (PSDSs)  provided by the Public Health Agency of Canada

Risk Group Classification for Infectious Agents provided by the American Biological Safety Association (ABSA)

Biological Risk Assessment Template provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Recognizing the Biosafety Levels Training provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Biological Hazards Lab Safety Module provided by the Dow Chemical Company